Baker A. Race, Paternalism, and Foreign Aid: Evidence from U.S. Public Opinion. American Political Science Review [Internet]. 2015;109(1). Article PDFAbstract
Virtually all previous studies of domestic economic redistribution find white Americans to be less enthusiastic about welfare for black recipients than for white recipients. When it comes to foreign aid and international redistribution across racial lines, I argue that prejudice manifests not in an uncharitable, resentful way but in a paternalistic way because intergroup contact is minimal and because of how the media portray black foreigners. Using two survey experiments, I show that white Americans are more favorable toward aid when cued to think of foreign poor of African descent than when cued to think of those of East European descent. This relationship is due not to the greater perceived need of black foreigners but to an underlying racial paternalism that sees them as lacking in human agency. The findings confirm accusations of aid skeptics and hold implications for understanding the roots of paternalistic practices in the foreign aid regime.
Seabrook NR, Dyck JJ, Edward L. Lascher J. Do Ballot Initiatives Increase General Political Knowledge?. Political Behavior [Internet]. 2014. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Current literature often suggests that more information and choices will enhance citizens’ general political knowledge. Notably, some studies indicate that a greater number of state ballot initiatives raise Americans’ knowledge through increases in motivation and supply of political information. By contrast, we contend that political psychology theory and findings indicate that, at best, more ballot measures will have no effect on knowledge. At worst greater use of direct democracy should make it more costly to learn about institutions of representative government and lessen motivation by overwhelming voters with choices. To test this proposition, we develop a new research design and draw upon data more appropriate to assessing the question at hand. We also make use of a propensity score matching algorithm to assess the balance in the data between initiative state and non-initiative state voters. Controlling for a wide variety of variables, we find that there is no empirical relationship between ballot initiatives and political knowledge. These results add to a growing list of findings which cast serious doubt on the educative potential of direct democracy.
Evans HK. Competitive Elections and Democracy in America: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. Routledge; 2014.
Evans HK, Ensley MJ, Carmines EG. The Enduring Effects of Competitive Elections. Journal of Elections, Public Opinion, and Parties [Internet]. 2014;24(4):455-472. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Research on U.S. congressional elections has placed great emphasis on the role of competitiveness, which is associated with high levels of campaign spending, media coverage, and interest group and party involvement. Competitive campaigns have been found to increase citizens' participation, engagement and learning. However, little is known about whether the effects of competitive campaigns have enduring consequences for citizens' attitudes and behavior. Analyzing a survey of citizens conducted one year after the 2006 congressional elections that includes an oversample of respondents from competitive House races, we examine whether exposure to a competitive House campaign affects voters' political knowledge and political interest as well as their consumption of political news. We find that competitive elections have positive effects that endure for at least a year beyond the campaign season, reinforcing the idea that political competition plays a robust role in American representative democracy.
Dyck JJ, Pearson-Merkowitz S. To Know You is Not Necessarily to Love You: The Partisan Mediators of Intergroup Contact. Political Behavior [Internet]. 2014;36(3):553-580. Publisher's VersionAbstract
We propose the contact–cue interaction approach to studying political contact—that cues from trusted political elites can moderate the effect of contact on the formation of public policy opinions. Allport’s initial formulation of the contact effect noted that it relies on authority support. In a highly polarized political era, authoritative voices for individuals vary based on party identification. Social experiences may affect public policy, but they must also be considered in light of partisan filters. Using data from the 2006 CCES, we examine the manner in which straight respondents with gay family members, friends, co-workers and acquaintances view same-sex marriage policy, finding a strong contact effect among Democrats, but no contact effect among the strongest Republican identifiers. Our data and analyses strongly support the perspective that social interactions (and their effect on policy) are understood through the lens of partisanship and elite cues.
Egan P.

"Do Something" Politics and Double-Peaked Policy Preferences

. The Journal of Politics [Internet]. 2014;76(2):333-349. Publisher's VersionAbstract
When a public problem is perceived to be poorly addressed by current policy, it is often the case that credible alternative policies are proposed to both the status quo’s left and right. Specially designed national surveys show that in circumstances like these, many Americans’ preferences are not single-peaked on the standard left-right dimension. Rather, they simply want the government to “do something” about the problem and therefore prefer both liberal and conservative policies to the moderate status quo. This produces individual and collective preferences that are double-peaked with respect to the left-right dimension. Double-peakedness is less prevalent on issues where no consensus exists regarding policy goals, and it increases when exogenous events raise the public’s concern about the seriousness of a policy problem.
Ansolabehere S, Konisky DM.

Cheap and Clean: How Americans Think about Energy in the Age of Global Warming

. Cambridge: MIT Press; 2014 pp. 272. Publisher's WebsiteAbstract
How do Americans think about energy? Is the debate over fossil fuels highly partisan and ideological? Does public opinion about fossil fuels and alternative energies divide along the fault between red states and blue states? And how much do concerns about climate change weigh on their opinions? In Cheap and Clean, Stephen Ansolabehere and David Konisky show that Americans are more pragmatic than ideological in their opinions about energy alternatives, more unified than divided about their main concerns, and more local than global in their approach to energy.Drawing on extensive surveys they designed and conducted over the course of a decade (in conjunction with MIT’s Energy Initiative), Ansolabehere and Konisky report that beliefs about the costs and environmental harms associated with particular fuels drive public opinions about energy. People approach energy choices as consumers, and what is most important to them is simply that energy be cheap and clean. Most of us want energy at low economic cost and with little social cost (that is, minimal health risk from pollution). The authors also find that although environmental concerns weigh heavily in people’s energy preferences, these concerns are local and not global. Worries about global warming are less pressing to most than worries about their own city’s smog and toxic waste. With this in mind, Ansolabehere and Konisky argue for policies that target both local pollutants and carbon emissions (the main source of global warming). The local and immediate nature of people’s energy concerns can be the starting point for a new approach to energy and climate change policy.
Evans HK, Ulbig S. Social Butterflies and Politics: Exploring the Link between Sociability and Political Engagement, Online and Off. Journal of Information Technology & Politics [Internet]. 2012;9(4):402-414. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This article explores the relationship between individual-level sociability and political engagement. While some evidence exists that individual-level sociability may be related to political engagement and interest, little is known about the ways in which sociability affects participation in different forms of political activity, particularly newer forms of online political engagement. Using data from the 2009 Cooperative Congressional Election Study, we explore the ways in which individual-level sociability affects political engagement in a range of activities, including online political discussions. We find sociability levels affected some activities more than others. Sociability has no impact on more socially isolated political activities such as voter registration and voting, but greatly impacts engagement in political activities involving a higher degree of social interaction, such as attending a meeting where a member of Congress was present and discussing politics with others, both in person and online. These findings help explain longstanding questions about the factors that motivate participation in traditional political activities as well as newer online forms of political engagement.
Buttice MK, Stone WJ. Candidates Matter: Policy and Quality Differences in Congressional Elections. The Journal of Politics. 2012;74(3):870-887.
Arceneaux K, Nicholson S. Who Wants to Have a Tea Party? The Who, What, and Why of the Tea Party Movement. PS: Political Science and Politics. 2012;45(4):700-710.
Pedraza F, Krueger J. Missing Voices: War Attitudes among Military Service-Connected Civilians. Armed Forces and Society. 2012;38(3):391-412.
Barker D, Carman C. Political Representation in Red and Blue America: How Cultural Differences Shape Democratic Expectations and Outcomes. New York: Oxford University Press; 2012.
Jacobson G. The Electoral Origins of Polarized Politics: Evidence from the 2010 Cooperative Congressional Election Study. American Behavioral Scientist. 2012;56(12):1612-1630.
Jacobson G. The Politics of Congressional Elections, 8th edition. New York: Longman; 2012.
Nicholson SP, Segura GM. Who's the Party of the People? Economic Populism and the U.S. Public's Beliefs about Political Parties. Political Behavior [Internet]. 2012;34(2):369-389. Website
Nicholson SP. Polarizing Cues. American Journal of Political Science. 2012;56(1):52-66.
Wright M, Citrin J, Wand J. Alternative Measures of American National Identity: Implications for the Civic-Ethnic Distinction. Political Psychology. 2012;33(4):469-482.
Brooks D, Murov M. Assessing Accountability in a Post-Citizens United Era: The Effects of Attack Ad Sponsorship by Unknown Independent Groups. American Politics Research. 2012;40(3):383.
Richardson LE, Konisky DM, Milyo J. Public Approval of U. S. State Legislatures. Legislative Studies Quarterly. 2012;37(1):99-116. Full Text