Heat conduction from a spherical nano-particle: status of modeling heat conduction in laser-induced incandescence
Liu F, Daun KJ, Snelling DR, Smallwood GJ. Heat conduction from a spherical nano-particle: status of modeling heat conduction in laser-induced incandescence. Applied Physics B: Lasers and Optics [Internet]. 2006;83:355 - 382.
Laser-induced incandescence (LII) of nano-second pulsed laser heated nano-particles has been developed into a popular technique for characterizing concentration and size of particles suspended in a gas and continues to draw increased research attention. Heat conduction is in general the dominant particle cooling mechanism after the laser pulse. Accurate calculation of the particle cooling rate is essential for accurate analysis of LII experimental data. Modelling of particle conduction heat loss has often been flawed. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive review of the heat conduction modelling practice in the LII literature and an overview of the physics of heat conduction loss from a single spherical particle in the entire range of Knudsen number with emphasis on the transition regime. Various transition regime models developed in the literature are discussed with their accuracy evaluated against direct simulation Monte Carlo results under different particle-to-gas temperature ratios. The importance of accounting for the variation of the thermal properties of the surrounding gas between the gas temperature and the particle temperature is demonstrated. Effects of using these heat conduction models on the inferred particle diameter or the thermal accommodation coefficient are also evaluated. The popular McCoy and Cha model is extensively discussed and evaluated. Based on its superior accuracy in the entire transition regime and even under large particle-to-gas temperature ratios, the Fuchs boundary-sphere model is recommended for modeling particle heat conduction cooling in LII applications.