Schaffer F. Might Cleaning Up Elections Keep People Away from the Polls? Historical and Comparative Perspectives. International Political Science Review. 2002;23(1):69-84.
Abstract:Many democracies in the developing world have enacted reforms to make their elections cleaner. It is often assumed that such reforms will make elections more participatory. The reality, however, is that we know little about the consequences of current reform efforts on voter turnout. In examining both historical and contemporary cases, this article identifies three mechanisms by which clean election reform today might actually keep potential voters away from the polls: legal disfranchisment, cutting out the go-between, and buying abstention.