The cultural manifestations of European interest in Hetman Mazepa — as illustrated in cases 2 and 3 — represent works of high culture, serious art, classical music. These are the genres of epic poetry, verse drama, opera, symphonic poems, the paintings of the professional artist's atelier. The centers of this cultural outpouring were the traditional ones in France, Italy, Germany.
The irony of fate is such, that while Hetman Ivan Mazepa became the best known Ukrainian worldwide, both as a figure of history and myth, in his own homeland of Ukraine for decades he fell into oblivion. If known at all, it was largely as others would have Ukrainians see him. There was little of a native, national image cultivated of him in the cultural arena.