Publications by Co-Author: Bates

Bates RH, Block S.

The Political Origins of the Africa’s Economic Revival

. 2014.Abstract
Writing in the 1990’s, William Easterly and Ross Levine famously labeled Africa a “growth tragedy”.1 Less than twenty years later, Alwyn Young noted Africa’s “growth miracle”2, while Steven Radelet less effusively pointed to an Africa that was “emerging” and noted its rising rate of economic growth, improving levels of education and health care, and increasing levels of investment in basic infrastructure: roads, ports, and transport3. In this paper, we address Africa’s economic revival. In doing so, we also stress the political changes that have taken place on the continent. Once notorious for its tyrants – Jean-­‐Bedel Bokassa, Idi Amin, and Mobutu Sese Seko, to name but three – in the 1990s, Africa joined the last wave of democratization; self-­‐appointed heads of state were replaced by rulers chosen in competitive elections. In this paper, we assert that the two sets of changes – the one economic and the other political – go together, and that, indeed, changes in Africa’s political institutions lent significant impetus to its economic revival.
<p>Africa's Development in Historical Perspective</p>

Africa's Development in Historical Perspective

. (Bates RH, Nunn N, Robinson JA, Akyeampong E). Cambridge University Press; 2014. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This edited volume addresses the root causes of Africa's persistent poverty through an investigation of its longue durée history. It interrogates the African past through disease and demography, institutions and governance, African economies and the impact of the export slave trade, colonialism, Africa in the world economy, and culture's influence on accumulation and investment. Several of the chapters take a comparative perspective, placing Africa's developments aside other global patterns. The readership for this book spans from the informed lay reader with an interest in Africa, academics and undergraduate and graduate students, policy makers, and those in the development world.
Bates RH, Block S.

Political Institutions and Productivity Growth in Africa’s “Renaissance”

. 2014.Abstract
People speak of an “African renaissance.” We report and explore data that suggest that the continent’s return to positive growth can near entirely be explained by changes in total factor productivity growth. We find as well that changes in Africa’s political institutions played a major role in this transition and that the channel linking institutional change to changes in economic performance runs in significant part through changes in policy choices. We conclude with reasons to be cautious in assessments of the depth and durability of the changes in Africa’s economies.
Bates RH. The Imperial Peace in Colonial Africa and Africa's Underdevelopment. In: Cambridge University Press; 2012. WebsiteAbstract
When praised at all, imperialism is most often commended for the peace it bestowed. By demobilizing armies, deposing marauding princes and subduing war-like states, European powers fashioned a half-century of political order. The question nonetheless arises: Should they be lauded for that? In this chapter, I view Africa’s history through the lens of comparative history and argue that the imperial peace may have retarded Africa’s development.
Bates RH. Income and Democracy: Lipset’s Law Inverted. Oxford Centre for the Analysis of Resource Rich Economies [Internet]. 2012. WebsiteAbstract
We revisit Lipset’s law, which posits a positive and significant relationship between income and democracy. Using dynamic and heterogeneous panel data estimation techniques, we find a significant and negative relationship between income and democracy: higher/lower incomes per capita hinder/trigger democratization. We thus challenge the recent empirical literature that found no such significant relationship. We attribute this result to the nature of the tax base, and exploit additional sources of heterogeneity. Decomposing overall income per capita into its resource and non-resource components, we find that the coefficient on the latter is positive and significant while that on the former is significant but negative.
Bates RH. The New Institutionalism and Africa. The Journal of African Politics [Internet]. 2012. WebsiteAbstract
After briefly reviewing the new institutionalism, this article uses the history of political reform in Africa to test its key tenet: that power, if properly organized, is a productive resource. It does so by exploring the relationship between changes in political institutions and changes in economic performance, both at the macro- and the micro-level. The evidence indicates that political reform (Granger) causes increases in GDP per capita in the African subset of global data. And, at the micro-level, it demonstrates that changes in national political institutions in Africa strongly relate to changes in total factor productivity in agriculture.
Carter B, Bates RH. Public Policy, Price Shocks, and Civil War in Developing Countries. 2012.Abstract
Those who study the role of agriculture in the political economy of development focus on government policy choices on the one hand and the impact of price shocks on the other. We argue that the two should be studied together. We nd that civil unrest (Granger) causes government policies, pushing governments in poor and medium income countries to shift relative prices in favor of urban consumers. We also nd that while civil wars are related to food price shocks, when government policy choices are taken into account, the relationship disappears. We thus learn two things: Policies that placate urban consumers may in ict economic costs on governments, but they confer political benets. And when estimating the relationship between price shocks and political stability, equations that omit the policy response of governments are misspecied.
Bates RH, Block S. Revisiting African Agriculture: Institutional Change and Productivity Growth. 2012.Abstract
Africa is largely agrarian and the performance of agriculture shapes the performance of its economies. It has long been argued that economic development in Africa is strongly conditioned by politics. Recent changes in Africa’s political systems enables us to test this argument and, by extension, broader claims about the impact of political institutions on economic development. Building on a recent analysis of total factor productivity growth in African agriculture, we find that the introduction of competitive presidential elections in the last decades of the 20th Century appears to have altered political incentives, resulting in policy reforms that have enhanced the performance of farmers.
Bates RH. The State of Democracy in Sub-Saharan Africa. International Area Studies Review [Internet]. 2012. WebsiteAbstract
Africa experienced a wave of democratization over the past 20 years and this increase in democracy, we find, positively and significantly affects income per capita. Our dynamic panel data results suggest that countries only slowly converge to their long-run income values as predicted by current democracy levels, however: African countries may therefore be currently too democratic relative to their income levels. In keeping with this possibility, a significant number of countries experience political ‘back sliding’: elections are won by the use of illicit tactics, term limits on political leaders have been overturned and there have been unconstitutional seizures of power.
Joshi MC, Bourniquel A, Fisher J, Ho BT, Magnan D, Kleckner N, Bates D. Escherichia coli sister chromosome separation includes an abrupt global transition with concomitant release of late-splitting intersister snaps. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011;108(7):2765-70.Abstract
The basis for segregation of sister chromosomes in bacteria is not established. We show here that two discrete ~150-kb regions, both located early in the right replichore, exhibit prolonged juxtaposition of sister loci, for 20 and 30 min, respectively, after replication. Flanking regions, meanwhile, separate. Thus, the two identified regions comprise specialized late-splitting intersister connections or snaps. Sister snap loci separate simultaneously in both snap regions, concomitant with a major global nucleoid reorganization that results in emergence of a bilobed nucleoid morphology. Split snap loci move rapidly apart to a separation distance comparable with one-half the length of the nucleoid. Concomitantly, at already split positions, sister loci undergo further separation to a comparable distance. The overall consequence of these and other effects is that thus far replicated sister chromosomes become spatially separated (individualized) into the two nucleoid lobes, while the terminus region (and likely, all unreplicated portions of the chromosome) moves to midcell. These and other findings imply that segregation of Escherichia coli sister chromosomes is not a smooth continuous process but involves at least one and likely, two major global transition(s). The presented patterns further suggest that accumulation of internal intranucleoid forces and constraining of these forces by snaps play central roles in global chromosome dynamics. They are consistent with and supportive of our previous proposals that individualization of sisters in E. coli is driven primarily by internally generated pushing forces and is directly analogous to sister individualization at the prophase to prometaphase transition of the eukaryotic cell cycle.
Bates RH, Block S. The Political Economy of Agricultural Trade Interventions in Africa. 2008.Abstract
In this chapter, we explore patterns of variation in the content of agricultural policies in Africa. We look at the impact of the government’s need for revenues, the incentives for farmers to lobby, and their capacity to affect electoral outcomes. We also explore the political impact of regional inequality, especially insofar as it is generated by cash crop production. These factors operate in ways that deepen our appreciation of the impact of politics on the making of agricultural policies.
Bates RH, Ndulu BJ, Fosu AK. The Political Economy of Economic Growth in Africa, 1960–2000. Cambridge University Press; 2008. WebsiteAbstract
The period from 1960 to 2000 was one of remarkable growth and transformation in the world economy. Why did most of Sub-Saharan Africa fail to develop over this period? Why did a few small African economies succeed spectacularly? The Political Economy of Economic Growth in Africa, 1960–2000 is by far the most ambitious and comprehensive assessment of Africa's post-independence economic performance to date. Volume 2 supports and extends the analysis of African economic growth presented in the first volume by providing twenty-six case studies of individual African economies. The book is broken into three parts based on the three main types of economy found in Sub-Saharan Africa: landlocked, coastal and resource-rich. Eighteen of the case studies are contained in the book and a further eight are included on an accompanying CD-Rom. This is an invaluable resource for researchers and policy-makers concerned with the economic development of Africa.
Bates RH. When Things Fell Apart . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008. WebsiteAbstract
the later decades of the 20th century, Africa plunged into political chaos. States failed, governments became predators, and citizens took up arms. In When Things Fell Apart, Robert H. Bates advances an explanation of state failure in Africa. In so doing, he not only plumbs the depths of the continent's late-century tragedy, but also the logic of political order and the foundations of the state. This book covers a wide range of territory by drawing on materials from Rwanda, Sudan, Liberia, and Congo. Written to be accessible to the general reader, it is nonetheless a must-read for scholars and policy makers concerned with political conflict and state failure.
Bates RH. When Things Fell Apart: State Failure in Late-Century Africa. Cambridge University Press; 2008. WebsiteAbstract
In the later decades of the twentieth century, Africa plunged into political chaos. States failed, governments became predators, and citizens took up arms. In When Things Fell Apart, Robert H. Bates advances an exploration of state failure in Africa. In so doing, he not only plumbs the depths of the continent's late-century tragedy, but also the logic of political order and the foundations of the state. This book covers a wide range of territory by drawing on materials from Rwanda, Sudan, Liberia, and Congo. A must-read for scholars and policy makers concerned with political conflict and state failure.
Kaufman AJ, Johnston DT, Farquhar J, Masterson AL, Lyons TW, Anbar SBA, Arnold GL, Garvin J, Buick R.

Global biospheric oxygenation and atmospheric evolution at the close of the Archean Eon.

Science. 2007;(317):1900-1903.
Marušić M, Anić A, Bates T, Marušić A. {How the structure of contribution disclosure statements affects validity of authorship: a randomized study in a general medical journal*}. Current Medical Research and Opinion [Internet]. 2006;22:1035–1044. WebsiteAbstract
Bates RH, Coatsworth JH, Williamson JG. Lost Decades: Lessons from Post-Independence Latin America for Today's Africa. 2006.Abstract
Africa and Latin America secured their independence from European colonial rule a century and half apart: most of Latin America after 1820 and most of Africa after 1960. Despite the distance in time and space, they share important similarities. In each case independence was followed by political instability, violent conflict and economic stagnation lasting for about a half-century (lost decades). The parallels suggest that Africa might be exiting from a period of post-imperial collapse and entering a period of relative political stability and economic growth, as did Latin America a century and a half earlier.
Bates D, Kleckner N. Chromosome and replisome dynamics in E. coli: loss of sister cohesion triggers global chromosome movement and mediates chromosome segregation. Cell. 2005;121(6):899-911.Abstract
Chromosome and replisome dynamics were examined in synchronized E. coli cells undergoing a eukaryotic-like cell cycle. Sister chromosomes remain tightly colocalized for much of S phase and then separate, in a single coordinate transition. Origin and terminus regions behave differently, as functionally independent domains. During separation, sister loci move far apart and the nucleoid becomes bilobed. Origins and terminus regions also move. We infer that sisters are initially linked and that loss of cohesion triggers global chromosome reorganization. This reorganization creates the 2-fold symmetric, ter-in/ori-out conformation which, for E. coli, comprises sister segregation. Analogies with eukaryotic prometaphase suggest that this could be a primordial segregation mechanism to which microtubule-based processes were later added. We see no long-lived replication "factory"; replication initiation timing does not covary with cell mass, and we identify changes in nucleoid position and state that are tightly linked to cell division. We propose that cell division licenses the next round of replication initiation via these changes.
Bates D, Epstein J, Boye E, Fahrner K, Berg H, Kleckner N. The Escherichia coli baby cell column: a novel cell synchronization method provides new insight into the bacterial cell cycle. Mol Microbiol. 2005;57(2):380-91.Abstract
We describe a new method for synchronizing bacterial cells. Cells that have transiently expressed an inducible mutant 'sticky' flagellin are adhered to a volume of glass beads suspended in a chromatography column though which growth medium is pumped. Following repression of flagellin synthesis, newborn cells are eluted from the column in large quantities exceeding that of current baby machine techniques by approximately 10-fold. Eluted cultures of 'baby cells' are highly synchronous as determined by analysis of DNA replication, cell division and other events, over time after elution from the column. We also show that use of 'minutes after elution' as a time metric permits much greater temporal resolution among sequential chromosomal events than the commonly used metric of cell size (length). The former approach reveals the existence of transient intermediate stages that are missed by the latter approach. This finding has two important implications. First, at a practical level, the baby cell column is a particularly powerful method for temporal analysis. Second, at a conceptual level, replication-related events are more tightly linked to cell birth (i.e. cell division) than to absolute cell mass.
Marusić A, Marusić M, Anić A, Bates T. {Authorship criteria and disclosure of contributions: comparison of 3 general medical journals with different author contribution forms.}. JAMA : the journal of the American Medical Association [Internet]. 2004;292:86–8. WebsiteAbstract
A number of general medical journals and the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) request authors to disclose their contributions. Little is known about the effect of journal policies on authors' disclosure of their contributions.