Nanomaterials have revolutionized cancer imaging, diagnosis, and treatment. Multifunctional nanoparticles in particular have been designed for targeted cancer therapy by modulating their physicochemical properties to be delivered to the target and activated by internal and/or external stimuli. This review will focus on the fundamental "chemical" design considerations of stimuli-responsive nanosystems to achieve favorable tumor targeting beyond biological barriers and, furthermore, enhance targeted cancer therapy. In addition, we will summarize innovative smart nanosystems responsive to external stimuli (e.g., light, magnetic field, ultrasound, and electric field) and internal stimuli in the tumor microenvironment (e.g., pH, enzyme, redox potential, and oxidative stress).
Kang, HomanHu, ShuangCho, Mi HyeonHong, Suk HoChoi, YongdooChoi, Hak SooengR01 EB022230/EB/NIBIB NIH HHS/EnglandNano Today. 2018 Dec;23:59-72. doi: 10.1016/j.nantod.2018.11.001. Epub 2018 Nov 16.