Burgess SM, Kleckner N, Weiner BM. Somatic pairing of homologs in budding yeast: existence and modulation. Genes Dev. 1999;13 (12) :1627-41.Abstract
FISH analysis of well-spread chromosomes reveals that homologs are paired in vegetatively growing budding yeast diploid cells, via multiple interstitial interactions, and independent of recA homologs and mating type heterozygosity. Pairing is present during G1 and G2, and in cells arrested at G1 by mating pheromone, but is disrupted during S phase. Thus, somatic pairing is qualitatively analogous to premeiotic and early meiotic pairing. S-phase pairing disruption occurs by a complex intranuclear program involving regional, nucleus-wide, and temporal determinants. Pairing is also disrupted in two G2-arrest conditions (cdc13ts and nocodazole). Together these findings suggest that cell cycle signals may provoke pairing disruption by modulating underlying chromosome and/or chromatin structure. Whether the cell chooses to disrupt pairing contacts or not (e.g., S phase and G2 arrest, but not G1 arrest or normal G1 or G2), could be dictated by functional considerations involving homolog/sister discrimination.
Kleckner NW, Glazewski JC, Chen CC, Moscrip TD. Subtype-selective antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors by felbamate: insights into the mechanism of action. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1999;289 (2) :886-94.Abstract
Felbamate is an anticonvulsant used in the treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome and complex partial seizures that are refractory to other medications. Its unique clinical profile is thought to be due to an interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, resulting in decreased excitatory amino acid neurotransmission. To further characterize the interaction between felbamate and NMDA receptors, recombinant receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes were used to investigate the subtype specificity and mechanism of action. Felbamate reduced NMDA- and glycine-induced currents most effectively at NMDA receptors composed of NR1 and NR2B subunits (IC50 = 0.93 mM), followed by NR1-2C (2.02 mM) and NR1-2A (8.56 mM) receptors. The NR1-2B-selective interaction was noncompetitive with respect to the coagonists NMDA and glycine and was not dependent on voltage. Felbamate enhanced the affinity of the NR1-2B receptor for the agonist NMDA by 3.5-fold, suggesting a similarity in mechanism to other noncompetitive antagonists such as ifenprodil. However, a point mutation at position 201 (E201R) of the epsilon2 (mouse NR2B) subunit that affects receptor sensitivity to ifenprodil, haloperidol, and protons reduced the affinity of NR1-epsilon2 receptors for felbamate by only 2-fold. Furthermore, pH had no effect on the affinity of NR1-2B receptors for felbamate. We suggest that felbamate interacts with a unique site on the NR2B subunit (or one formed by NR1 plus NR2B) that interacts allosterically with the NMDA/glutamate binding site. These results suggest that the unique clinical profile of felbamate is due in part to an interaction with the NR1-2B subtype of NMDA receptor.
Wold S, Boye E, Slater S, Kleckner N, Skarstad K. Effects of purified SeqA protein on oriC-dependent DNA replication in vitro. EMBO J. 1998;17 (14) :4158-65.Abstract
In vivo studies suggest that the Escherichia coli SeqA protein modulates replication initiation in two ways: by delaying initiation and by sequestering newly replicated origins from undergoing re-replication. As a first approach towards understanding the biochemical bases for these effects, we have examined the effects of purified SeqA protein on replication reactions performed in vitro on an oriC plasmid. Our results demonstrate that SeqA directly affects the biochemical events occurring at oriC. First, SeqA inhibits formation of the pre-priming complex. Secondly, SeqA can inhibit replication from an established pre-priming complex, without disrupting the complex. Thirdly, SeqA alters the dependence of the replication system on DnaA protein concentration, stimulating replication at low concentrations of DnaA. Our data suggest that SeqA participates in the assembly of initiation-competent complexes at oriC and, at a later stage, influences the behaviour of these complexes.
Chalmers R, Guhathakurta A, Benjamin H, Kleckner N. IHF modulation of Tn10 transposition: sensory transduction of supercoiling status via a proposed protein/DNA molecular spring. Cell. 1998;93 (5) :897-908.Abstract
Architectural protein IHF modulates Tn10 transposition in vitro. IHF stimulates transposon excision. Also, separately, IHF forces transposon end/target DNA interactions into a constrained pathway, "channeling," that yields only unknotted intratransposon inversion circles. Negative supercoiling influences both effects, differently. We infer that IHF is an architectural catalyst: it promotes initial transpososome assembly and is then ejected from the transpososome. IHF then rebinds, altering transpososome conformation to promote channeling. We also infer that the developing transpososome is a molecular spring: DNA provides basic elasticity; a conformational change in transposase provides force; and IHF and/or supercoiling provide conformational inputs. In vivo, IHF is a sensory transducer of chromosomal supercoiling status: with supercoiling absent, IHF is "supercoiling relief factor"; with supercoiling present, stimulation and channeling comprise a homeostatic pair such that modest changes in chromosome condition strongly influence transpositional outcome.
Zickler D, Kleckner N. The leptotene-zygotene transition of meiosis. Annu Rev Genet. 1998;32 :619-97.Abstract
The leptotene/zygotene transition of meiosis, as defined by classical cytological studies, is the period when homologous chromosomes, already being discernible individualized entities, begin to be close together or touching over portions of their lengths. This period also includes the bouquet stage: Chromosome ends, which have already become integral components of the inner nuclear membrane, move into a polarized configuration, along with other nuclear envelope components. Chromosome movements, active or passive, also occur. The detailed nature of interhomologue interactions during this period, with special emphasis on the involvement of chromosome ends, and the overall role for meiosis and recombination of chromosome movement and, especially, the bouquet stage are discussed.
Kennedy AK, Guhathakurta A, Kleckner N, Haniford DB. Tn10 transposition via a DNA hairpin intermediate. Cell. 1998;95 (1) :125-34.Abstract
We present evidence that excision of the nonreplicative transposon Tn10 involves three distinct chemical steps, first-strand nicking, hairpin formation, and hairpin resolution. This three-step mechanism makes it possible for a single protein-active site to cleave two DNA strands of opposite polarity, as appears to be the case in this reaction. We infer the existence of alternating bifunctionality within the active site with suitable modulation of substrate components between steps. DNA double-strand breaks are also made by a "hairpin mechanism" in V(D)J recombination, possibly reflecting the same basic constraints faced in the Tn10 system. Similarities in the basic chemical steps in Tn10 transposition and V(D)J recombination suggest that the V(D)J mechanism may have evolved from a bacterial transposition system.
Xu L, Weiner BM, Kleckner N. Meiotic cells monitor the status of the interhomolog recombination complex. Genes Dev. 1997;11 (1) :106-18.Abstract
During meiosis, mutations that cause defects at intermediate stages in the recombination process confer arrest at the end of prophase (e.g., pachytene). In yeast, mutations of this type include rad50S, dmc1, rad51, and zip1. Rad50 is likely part of a recombination initiation complex. DMC1, RAD51, and ZIP1 encode two RecA homologs and a synaptonemal complex protein, respectively. We report here the effects of mutations in two other (meiosis-specific) genes, RED1 and MEK1/MRE4, that encode a chromosome structure component and a protein kinase, respectively. A red1 or mek1/mre4 mutation alleviates completely rad50S, dmc1, rad51, and zip1 arrest. Furthermore, the red1 and mek1/mre4 mutations define a unique, previously unrecognized aspect of recombination imposed very early in the process, during DSB formation. Finally, the red1 and mek1/mre4 mutations appear to alleviate prophase arrest directly rather than by eliminating, or permitting bypass of, the rad50S, dmc1, rad51, or zip1 defects. These and other observations suggest that a meiosis-specific regulatory surveillance process monitors the status of the protein/DNA interhomolog recombination machinery as an integral entity, in its proper chromosomal context, and dependent upon its appropriate Red1 and Mek1/Mre4-promoted development. We speculate that a properly developed recombination complex emits an inhibitory signal to delay progression of meiotic cells out of prophase until or unless the recombination process has progressed, at least past certain critical steps, and perhaps to completion.
McKee AH, Kleckner N. A general method for identifying recessive diploid-specific mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, its application to the isolation of mutants blocked at intermediate stages of meiotic prophase and characterization of a new gene SAE2. Genetics. 1997;146 (3) :797-816.Abstract
We describe a general new approach for identifying recessive mutations that affect diploid strains of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and the application of this method to the identification of mutations that confer an intermediate block in meiotic prophase chromosome metabolism. The method uses a temperature-sensitive conjugation mutation ste7-1 in combination with homothallism. The mutations of interest confer a defect in spore formation that is dependent upon a gene required for initiation of meiotic recombination and development of meiosis-specific chromosome structure (SPO11). Identified in this screen were null mutations of the DMC1 gene, nonnull mutations of RAD50 (rad50S), and mutations in three new genes designed SAE1, SAE2 and SAE3 (Sporulation in the Absence of Spo Eleven). Molecular characterization of the SAE2 gene and characterization of meiotic and mitotic phenotypes of sae2 mutants are also presented. The phenotypes conferred by a sae2 null mutation are virtually indistinguishable from those conferred by the previously identified nonnull mutations of RAD50 (rad50S). Most notably, both mutations confer only weak sensitivity to the radiomimetic agent methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) but completely block resection and turnover of meiosis-specific double-strand breaks. These observations provide further evidence that this constellation of phenotypes identifies a specific molecular function.
Schwacha A, Kleckner N. Interhomolog bias during meiotic recombination: meiotic functions promote a highly differentiated interhomolog-only pathway. Cell. 1997;90 (6) :1123-35.Abstract
Meiotic recombination occurs preferentially between homologous nonsister chromatids rather than between sisters, opposite to the bias of mitotic recombinational repair. We have examined formation of joint molecule recombination intermediates (JMs) between homologs and between sisters in yeast strains lacking the meiotic chromosomal protein Red1, the meiotic recA homolog Dmc1, and/or mitotic recA homolog(s), Rad51, Rad55, and Rad57. Mutant phenotypes imply that most meiotic recombination occurs via an interhomolog-only pathway along which interhomolog bias is established early, prior to or during double strand break (DSB) formation, and then enforced, just at the time when DSBs initiate JM formation. A parallel, less differentiated pathway yields intersister and, probably, a few interhomolog events. Coordinate action of mitotic recA homologs as one functional unit, two functions of RED1, and an interhomolog interaction function of DMC1 are also revealed.
Keeney S, Giroux CN, Kleckner N. Meiosis-specific DNA double-strand breaks are catalyzed by Spo11, a member of a widely conserved protein family. Cell. 1997;88 (3) :375-84.Abstract
Meiotic recombination in S. cerevisiae is initiated by double-strand breaks (DSBs). In certain mutants, breaks accumulate with a covalently attached protein, suggesting that cleavage is catalyzed by the DSB-associated protein via a topoisomerase-like transesterase mechanism. We have purified these protein-DNA complexes and identified the protein as Spo11, one of several proteins required for DSB formation. These findings strongly implicate Spo11 as the catalytic subunit of the meiotic DNA cleavage activity. This is the first identification of a biochemical function for any of the gene products involved in DSB formation. Spo11 defines a protein family with other members in fission yeast, nematodes, and archaebacteria. The S. pombe homolog, rec12p, is also known to be required for meiotic recombination. Thus, these findings provide direct evidence that the mechanism of meiotic recombination initiation is evolutionarily conserved.
McKee AH, Kleckner N. Mutations in Saccharomyces cerevisiae that block meiotic prophase chromosome metabolism and confer cell cycle arrest at pachytene identify two new meiosis-specific genes SAE1 and SAE3. Genetics. 1997;146 (3) :817-34.Abstract
Two new meiosis-specific genes, SAE1 and SAE3, have been identified in a screen for mutations that confer an intermediate block in meiotic prophase. Such mutations confer a block to spore formation that is circumvented by addition of a mutation that eliminates meiotic recombination initiation and other aspects of chromosome metabolism, i.e., spo11. We show that sae1-1 and sae3-1 mutations each confer a distinct defect in meiotic recombination. sae1-1 produces recombinants but very slowly and ultimately to less than half the wild-type level; sae3-1 makes persistent hyper-resected meiotic double-strand breaks and has a severe defect in formation of recombinants. Both mutants arrest at the pachytene stage of meiotic prophase, sae1-1 temporarily and sae3-1 permanently. The phenotypes conferred by sae3-1 are similar to those conferred by mutation of the yeast RecA homologue DMC1, suggesting that SAE3 and DMC1 act at the same step(s) of chromosome metabolism. These results provide further evidence that intermediate blocks to prophase chromosome metabolism cause cell-cycle arrest. SAE1 encodes a 208-residue protein homologous to vertebrate mRNA cap-binding protein 20. SAE3 corresponds to a meiosis-specific RNA encoding an unusually short open reading frame of 50 codons.
Shinohara A, Gasior S, Ogawa T, Kleckner N, Bishop DK. Saccharomyces cerevisiae recA homologues RAD51 and DMC1 have both distinct and overlapping roles in meiotic recombination. Genes Cells. 1997;2 (10) :615-29.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Rad51 and Dmc1 are Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologues of the Escherichia coli recombination protein RecA. Mutant analysis has shown that both proteins are required for normal meiotic recombination, for timely and efficient formation of synaptonemal complex and for normal progression out from meiotic prophase. RESULTS: We have further characterized rad51 and dmc1 single mutants. A dmc1 mutation confers more severe defects in double strand break (DSB) resolution, crossover recombination and meiotic progression than does a rad51 mutant; in contrast, during return to growth, a rad51 mutation confers more severe defects in viability and intrachromosomal recombination than does a dmc1 mutation. Analysis of a rad51 dmc1 double mutant, in parallel with single mutants, shows that the double mutant is more defective with respect to the formation of crossovers during meiosis and, especially strikingly, with respect to interhomologue and intrachromosomal recombination during return to growth. Consistent with the observation of DMC1-dependent recombination in a rad51 mutant, subnuclear complexes of Dmc1 protein were detected for the first time in this mutant. In contrast to the effects on recombination, the effect of the double mutant on meiotic progression was similar to that of the rad51 single mutant. CONCLUSION: Rad51 and Dmc1 each make unique contributions to meiotic recombination. However, the two proteins are capable of substituting for one another under some circumstances, implying that they most likely share at least one recombination function. Recombination and cell cycle phenotypes are all consistent with the possibility that a dmc1 mutation causes an arrest of the post-DSB recombination complexes at a later, more stable stage than does a rad51 mutation.
Sakai J, Kleckner N. The Tn10 synaptic complex can capture a target DNA only after transposon excision. Cell. 1997;89 (2) :205-14.Abstract
Tn10 transposes nonreplicatively. Staged in vitro reactions demonstrate that a Tn10 synaptic complex can become committed to a particular target DNA molecule via a noncovalent interaction in the absence of strand transfer. Commitment occurs only after double-strand cleavage at both transposon ends (in "double-end break" [DEB] complexes). Stable noncovalent DEB-target DNA cocomplexes can be detected, but no cocomplexes occur with synaptic complexes containing uncleaved ends. Preincubation of DEB complexes with target DNA accelerates the rate of strand transfer. Postcleavage target capture is remarkable for Tn10; Mu and Tn7 select a target site prior to cleavage. Promiscuous target selection may favor evolution of IS-based composite elements while being suicidal for other types of transposons.
Keeney S, Kleckner N. Communication between homologous chromosomes: genetic alterations at a nuclease-hypersensitive site can alter mitotic chromatin structure at that site both in cis and in trans. Genes Cells. 1996;1 (5) :475-89.Abstract
BACKGROUND: In vegetatively growing diploid strains of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, homologous chromosomes appear to be paired via multiple interstitial interactions, likely as a regular feature of the diploid lifestyle. We have previously suggested that this pairing is guided by direct physical interactions between intact DNA duplexes in nuclease-hypersensitive regions and that homology is sensed directly at the DNA level. RESULTS: As a first test of this idea we have examined the level of DNase I sensitivity at a prominent nuclease-hypersensitive site in mitotic chromatin in strains that are either homozygous or heterozygous for a pair of alleles at this site. We find that the degree of nuclease sensitivity at this site on a given (maternal or paternal) chromosome can vary depending upon whether the homologue carries the same allele or the different allele. The data are suggestive that nuclease sensitivity is higher in the former case than in the latter, as though nuclease hypersensitivity might be increased when the two alleles match as compared to when they do not. CONCLUSIONS: Formally, these observations suggest that homologous chromosomes can communicate via a mechanism that senses the status of the assayed nuclease-hypersensitive site with resultant changes in chromatin structure at that site. The observed pattern of effects is fully compatible with direct physical interactions between homologues at nuclease-hypersensitive regions, but alternative scenarios also can be envisioned. Since DNase I hypersensitive sites occur in many important regions of chromosomes, homology-dependent interactions involving such regions could potentially affect diverse processes including gene expression (e.g. transvection), chromosome organization, domain structure, and/or DNA replication patterns.
Boye E, Stokke T, Kleckner N, Skarstad K. Coordinating DNA replication initiation with cell growth: differential roles for DnaA and SeqA proteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93 (22) :12206-11.Abstract
We describe here the development of a new approach to the analysis of Escherichia coli replication control. Cells were grown at low growth rates, in which case the bacterial cell cycle approximates that of eukaryotic cells with G1, S, and G2 phases: cell division is followed sequentially by a gap period without DNA replication, replication of the single chromosome, another gap period, and finally the next cell division. Flow cytometry of such slowly growing cells reveals the timing of replication initiation as a function of cell mass. The data show that initiation is normally coupled to cell physiology extremely tightly: the distribution of individual cell masses at the time of initiation in wild-type cells is very narrow, with a coefficient of variation of less than 9%. Furthermore, a comparison between wild-type and seqA mutant cells shows that initiation occurs at a 10-20% lower mass in the seqA mutant, providing direct evidence that SeqA is a bona fide negative regulator of replication initiation. In dnaA (Ts) mutants the opposite is found: the mass at initiation is dramatically increased and the variability in cell mass at initiation is much higher than that for wild-type cells. In contrast to wild-type and dnaA(Ts) cells, seqA mutant cells frequently go through two initiation events per cell division cycle, and all the origins present in each cell are not initiated in synchrony. The implications for the complex interplay amongst growth, cell division, and DNA replication are discussed.
Chalmers RM, Kleckner N. IS10/Tn10 transposition efficiently accommodates diverse transposon end configurations. EMBO J. 1996;15 (18) :5112-22.Abstract
Transposon Tn10 and its component insertion sequence IS10 move by non-replicative transposition. We have studied the array of reaction intermediates and products in a high efficiency in vitro IS10/Tn10 transposition reaction. Synapsis of two transposon ends, followed by cleavage and strand transfer, can occur very efficiently irrespective of the relative locations and orientations of the two ends. The two participating ends can occur in inverted or direct orientation on the same molecule or, most importantly, on two different molecules. This behavior contrasts sharply with that of Mu, in which transposition is strongly biased in favor of inverted repeat synapsis. Mechanistically, the absence of discrimination amongst various end configurations implies that the architecture within the IS10/Tn10 synaptic complex is relatively simple, i.e. lacking any significant intertwining of component DNA strands. Biologically these observations are important because they suggest that the IS10 insertion sequence module has considerable flexibility in the types of DNA rearrangements that it can promote. Most importantly, it now seems highly probable that a single non-replicative IS10 element can promote DNA rearrangements usually attributed to replicative transposition, i.e. adjacent deletions and cointegrates, by utilizing transposon ends on two sister chromosomes. Other events which probably also contribute to the diversity of IS10/Tn10-promoted rearrangements are discussed.
Kleckner N. Meiosis: how could it work?. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93 (16) :8167-74.Abstract
A physical connection between homologs is required for reductional segregation at the first division of meiosis. This connection is usually provided by one or a few well-spaced crossovers. A speculative overview of processes leading to formation of these crossovers is presented.
Storlazzi A, Xu L, Schwacha A, Kleckner N. Synaptonemal complex (SC) component Zip1 plays a role in meiotic recombination independent of SC polymerization along the chromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93 (17) :9043-8.Abstract
Zip1 is a yeast synaptonemal complex (SC) central region component and is required for normal meiotic recombination and crossover interference. Physical analysis of meiotic recombination in a zip1 mutant reveals the following: Crossovers appear later than normal and at a reduced level. Noncrossover recombinants, in contrast, seem to appear in two phases: (i) a normal number appear with normal timing and (ii) then additional products appear late, at the same time as crossovers. Also, Holliday junctions are present at unusually late times, presumably as precursors to late-appearing products. Red1 is an axial structure component required for formation of cytologically discernible axial elements and SC and maximal levels of recombination. In a red1 mutant, crossovers and noncrossovers occur at coordinately reduced levels but with normal timing. If Zip1 affected recombination exclusively via SC polymerization, a zip1 mutation should confer no recombination defect in a red1 strain background. But a red1 zip1 double mutant exhibits the sum of the two single mutant phenotypes, including the specific deficit of crossovers seen in a zip1 strain. We infer that Zip1 plays at least one role in recombination that does not involve SC polymerization along the chromosomes. Perhaps some Zip1 molecules act first in or around the sites of recombinational interactions to influence the recombination process and thence nucleate SC formation. We propose that a Zip1-dependent, pre-SC transition early in the recombination reaction is an essential component of meiotic crossover control. A molecular basis for crossover/noncrossover differentiation is also suggested.
Bolland S, Kleckner N. The three chemical steps of Tn10/IS10 transposition involve repeated utilization of a single active site. Cell. 1996;84 (2) :223-33.Abstract
Nonreplicative transposition by Tn10/IS10 involves three chemical steps at each transposon end: cleavage of the two strands plus joining of one strand to target DNA. These steps occur within a synaptic complex comprising two transposon ends and monomers of IS10 transposase. We report four transposase mutations that individually abolish each of the three chemical steps without affecting the synaptic complex. We conclude that a single constellation of residues, the "active site," directly catalyzes each of the three steps. Analyses of reactions containing mixtures of wild-type and catalysis-defective transposases indicate that a single transposase monomer at each end catalyzes the cleavage of two strands and that strand transfer is carried out by the same monomers that previously catalyzed cleavage. These and other data suggest that one active site unit carries out all three reactions in succession at one transposon end.
Kleckner N, Chalmers RM, Kwon D, Sakai J, Bolland S. Tn10 and IS10 transposition and chromosome rearrangements: mechanism and regulation in vivo and in vitro. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1996;204 :49-82.