While the worldwide prevalence of kidney disease is increasing rapidly, the current therapeutic repertoire for these patients is often limited to dialysis and organ transplantation. However, advances in developmental and stem cell biology have highlighted the potential of stem cells for the development of novel renal regeneration therapies. While there are currently no approved stem cell-based treatments for kidney disease, various types of stem cells have been shown to facilitate regeneration of kidney tissue in preclinical models of both acute and chronic kidney injury. This review summarises the current status of stem cell-based therapies to battle kidney disease. In addition, future directions for the clinical translation of stem cell research towards development of novel renal regeneration therapies are discussed.