Publications

2022
Nishant Uppal, Elizabeth T Chin, Caroline H Lee, Parsa Erfani, and Katherine R Peeler. 6/10/2022. “International Medical Graduates and practice rates in underserved communities in Florida .” Healthcare, 10, 2.
Nishant Uppal, Elizabeth T. Chin, Parsa Erfani, Raquel Sofia Sandoval, Caroline H. Lee, Ranit Mishori, and Katherine R. Peeler. 2/16/2022. “Trends in Decarceration, COVID-19 Cases, and SARS-CoV-2 Testing in US Immigration Detention Centers From September 2020 to August 2021.” JAMA Network Open.
2021
Nishant Uppal, Raquel Sofia Sandoval, Parsa Erfani, Ranit Mishori, and Katherine Peeler. 8/2021. “Alternatives to Detention: Immigration Reform Grounded in Public Health [editorial].” American Journal of Public Health, 111, 8, Pp. 1395-1397. Full Text
Parsa Erfani, Nishant Uppal, Caroline Lee, Ranit Mishori, and Katherine Peeler. 1/12/2021. “COVID-19 Testing and Cases in Immigration Detention Centers, April-August 2020.” JAMA. Full TextAbstract

Individuals detained by US Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) live in congregate settings and thus have a disproportionately high risk of contracting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To reduce spread of COVID-19, ICE published its Pandemic Response Requirements in April 2020. These requirements established social distancing and disinfection protocols, testing guidelines, and expedited detainee release. This analysis examined COVID-19 testing and cases per month among ICE detainees.

Katherine Peeler, Parsa Erfani, Caroline Lee, Nishant Uppal, Kathryn Hampton, Ranit Mishori, and Elsa Raker. 1/12/2021. Praying for Hand Soap and Masks: Health and Human Rights Violations in U.S. Immigration Detention During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Physicians for Human Rights. Full TextAbstract

Physical and psychological abuse and inadequate medical care have long been documented in U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities, where previous infectious disease outbreaks were poorly contained. In 2020, as the COVID-19 pandemic spread across the United States, it became clear that ICE’s continued negligence, coupled with the vast expansion of U.S. immigration detention, would likely lead to a public health disaster.

Parsa Erfani, Elizabeth Chin, Caroline Lee, Nishant Uppal, and Katherine Peeler. 2021. “Suicide rates of migrants in United States immigration detention (2010–2020).” AIMS Public Health, 8, 3, Pp. 416-420. Full TextAbstract

We determined the annual suicide rate of migrants detained by U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) in the past decade. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of the annual suicide rates for ICE detainees from federal fiscal years (FY) 2010–2020. Death date and cause of death were directly extracted from publicly available ICE Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Library, ICE death reports, and ICE press releases. Annual suicide rates were calculated as suicides per 100,000 person-years and suicides per 100,000 admissions. From 2010–2019, the mean number of suicides per 100,000 person-years was 3.3 (standard deviation (SD): 2.6). In 2020, the suicide rate increased 5.3 times the prior 10-year average to 17.4 suicides per 100,000 person-years. When calculating suicide rate based on admissions per FY, the mean number of suicides from 2010–2019 per 100,000 admissions was 0.3 (SD: 0.3). In 2020, the suicide rate increased 11.0 times the prior 10-year average to 3.4 suicides per 100,000 admissions. In 2020, the detainee suicide rate increased substantially compared to the past decade. This may point to a worsening mental health crisis in ICE detention.

2020
Parsa Erfani, Caroline Lee, Nishant Uppal, and Katherine Peeler. 6/17/2020. “A Systematic Approach To Mitigate The Spread Of COVID-19 In Immigration Detention Facilities .” Health Affairs. Full Text