Radiation therapy (RT) is a critical cancer treatment, but the existing radiation oncologist work force does not meet growing global demand. One key physician task in RT planning involves tumor segmentation for targeting, which requires substantial training and is subject to significant interobserver variation.
To determine whether crowd innovation could be used to rapidly produce artificial intelligence (AI) solutions that replicate the accuracy of an expert radiation oncologist in segmenting lung tumors for RT targeting.
DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:
We conducted a 10-week, prize-based, online, 3-phase challenge (prizes totaled $55 000). A well-curated data set, including computed tomographic (CT) scans and lung tumor segmentations generated by an expert for clinical care, was used for the contest (CT scans from 461 patients; median 157 images per scan; 77 942 images in total; 8144 images with tumor present). Contestants were provided a training set of 229 CT scans with accompanying expert contours to develop their algorithms and given feedback on their performance throughout the contest, including from the expert clinician.
MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:
The AI algorithms generated by contestants were automatically scored on an independent data set that was withheld from contestants, and performance ranked using quantitative metrics that evaluated overlap of each algorithm's automated segmentations with the expert's segmentations. Performance was further benchmarked against human expert interobserver and intraobserver variation.
A total of 564 contestants from 62 countries registered for this challenge, and 34 (6%) submitted algorithms. The automated segmentations produced by the top 5 AI algorithms, when combined using an ensemble model, had an accuracy (Dice coefficient = 0.79) that was within the benchmark of mean interobserver variation measured between 6 human experts. For phase 1, the top 7 algorithms had average custom segmentation scores (S scores) on the holdout data set ranging from 0.15 to 0.38, and suboptimal performance using relative measures of error. The average S scores for phase 2 increased to 0.53 to 0.57, with a similar improvement in other performance metrics. In phase 3, performance of the top algorithm increased by an additional 9%. Combining the top 5 algorithms from phase 2 and phase 3 using an ensemble model, yielded an additional 9% to 12% improvement in performance with a final S score reaching 0.68.
CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:
A combined crowd innovation and AI approach rapidly produced automated algorithms that replicated the skills of a highly trained physician for a critical task in radiation therapy. These AI algorithms could improve cancer care globally by transferring the skills of expert clinicians to under-resourced health care settings.
Second-generation antipsychotics are associated with moderate benefits in terms of improved schizophrenia symptoms, but also with higher rates of side-effects such as excessive weight gain (WG); a consensus on their efficacy has not been reached. To date, no study has evaluated the interplay of treatments and side-effects in a single framework, which is a critical step to clarify the role of side-effects in explaining the efficacy of these antipsychotics. We used recent methods for mediation and interaction to clarify the role of WG in explaining the effects of second-generation drugs on schizophrenia symptoms. We used data from 1460 participants in the CATIE trial, assigned to either perphenazine (first-generation comparison drug), olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone. The primary outcome was an individual's score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) for symptoms of schizophrenia after 9 months, separately evaluated as positive (PANSS+), negative (PANSS-), and total PANSS score. WG after 6 months was investigated as a potential mediator and effect modifier. Results showed that, by limiting WG, patients would benefit of a considerably better improvement in terms of PANSS symptoms. In the scenario of weight change being controlled between -2% and 1% for all participants, patients assigned to olanzapine would experience the highest significant improvements in both PANSS+ (-2.66 points; 95% CI: -4.98, -0.35), PANSS- (-1.59; 95% CI: -4.31, 1.14), and total PANSS (-6.11; 95% CI: -13.13, 0.92). In conclusion, occurrence of excessive WG hampers the potentially beneficial effects of second-generation antipsychotics, thus suggesting future directions for treatment and interventions.
The quantification of changes in gene copy number is critical to our understanding of tumor biology and for the clinical management of cancer patients. DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization is the gold standard method to detect copy number alterations, but it is limited by the number of genes one can quantify simultaneously. To increase the throughput of this informative technique, a fluorescent bar-code system for the unique labeling of dozens of genes and an automated image analysis algorithm that enabled their simultaneous hybridization for the quantification of gene copy numbers were devised. We demonstrate the reliability of this multiplex approach on normal human lymphocytes, metaphase spreads of transformed cell lines, and cultured circulating tumor cells. It also opens the door to the development of gene panels for more comprehensive analysis of copy number changes in tissue, including the study of heterogeneity and of high-throughput clinical assays that could provide rapid quantification of gene copy numbers in samples with limited cellularity, such as circulating tumor cells.
The expanded Human Oral Microbiome Database (eHOMD) is a comprehensive microbiome database for sites along the human aerodigestive tract that revealed new insights into the nostril microbiome. The eHOMD provides well-curated 16S rRNA gene reference sequences linked to available genomes and enables assignment of species-level taxonomy to most next-generation sequences derived from diverse aerodigestive tract sites, including the nasal passages, sinuses, throat, esophagus, and mouth. Using minimum entropy decomposition coupled with the RDP Classifier and our eHOMD V1-V3 training set, we reanalyzed 16S rRNA V1-V3 sequences from the nostrils of 210 Human Microbiome Project participants at the species level, revealing four key insights. First, we discovered that Lawsonella clevelandensis, a recently named bacterium, and Neisseriaceae [G-1] HMT-174, a previously unrecognized bacterium, are common in adult nostrils. Second, just 19 species accounted for 90% of the total sequences from all participants. Third, 1 of these 19 species belonged to a currently uncultivated genus. Fourth, for 94% of the participants, 2 to 10 species constituted 90% of their sequences, indicating that the nostril microbiome may be represented by limited consortia. These insights highlight the strengths of the nostril microbiome as a model system for studying interspecies interactions and microbiome function. Also, in this cohort, three common nasal species (Dolosigranulum pigrum and two Corynebacterium species) showed positive differential abundance when the pathobiont Staphylococcus aureus was absent, generating hypotheses regarding colonization resistance. By facilitating species-level taxonomic assignment to microbes from the human aerodigestive tract, the eHOMD is a vital resource enhancing clinical relevance of microbiome studies. IMPORTANCE The eHOMD (http://www.ehomd.org) is a valuable resource for researchers, from basic to clinical, who study the microbiomes and the individual microbes in body sites in the human aerodigestive tract, which includes the nasal passages, sinuses, throat, esophagus, and mouth, and the lower respiratory tract, in health and disease. The eHOMD is an actively curated, web-based, open-access resource. eHOMD provides the following: (i) species-level taxonomy based on grouping 16S rRNA gene sequences at 98.5% identity, (ii) a systematic naming scheme for unnamed and/or uncultivated microbial taxa, (iii) reference genomes to facilitate metagenomic, metatranscriptomic, and proteomic studies and (iv) convenient cross-links to other databases (e.g., PubMed and Entrez). By facilitating the assignment of species names to sequences, the eHOMD is a vital resource for enhancing the clinical relevance of 16S rRNA gene-based microbiome studies, as well as metagenomic studies.
Loss of claudin 18 (CLDN18), a membrane-spanning tight junction protein, occurs during early stages of development of gastric cancer and associates with shorter survival times of patients. We investigated whether loss of CLDN18 occurs in mice that develop intraepithelial neoplasia with invasive glands due to infection with Helicobacter pylori, and whether loss is sufficient to promote the development of similar lesions in mice with or without H pylori infection.
We performed immunohistochemical analyses in levels of CLDN18 in archived tissues from B6:129 mice infected with H pylori for 6 to 15 months. We analyzed gastric tissues from B6:129S5-Cldn18tm1Lex/Mmucd mice, in which the CLDN18 gene was disrupted in gastric tissues (CLDN18-knockout mice), or from control mice with a full-length CLDN18 gene (CLDN18+/+; B6:129S5/SvEvBrd) or heterozygous disruption of CLDN18 (CLDN18+/-; B6:129S5/SvEvBrd) that were infected with H pylori SS1 or PMSS1 at 6 weeks of age and tissues collected for analysis at 20 and 30 weeks after infection. Tissues from CLDN18-knockout mice and control mice with full-length CLDN18 gene expression were also analyzed without infection at 7 weeks and 2 years after birth. Tissues from control and CLDN18-knockout mice were analyzed by electron microscopy, stained by conventional methods and analyzed for histopathology, prepared by laser capture microdissection and analyzed by RNAseq, and immunostained for lineage markers, proliferation markers, and stem cell markers and analyzed by super-resolution or conventional confocal microscopy.
CLDN18 had a basolateral rather than apical tight junction localization in gastric epithelial cells. B6:129 mice infected with H pylori, which developed intraepithelial neoplasia with invasive glands, had increasing levels of CLDN18 loss over time compared with uninfected mice. In B6:129 mice infected with H pylori compared with uninfected mice, CLDN18 was first lost from most gastric glands followed by disrupted and reduced expression in the gastric neck and in surface cells. Gastric tissues from CLDN18-knockout mice had low levels of inflammation but increased cell proliferation, expressed markers of intestinalized proliferative spasmolytic polypeptide-expressing metaplasia, and had defects in signal transduction pathways including p53 and STAT signaling by 7 weeks after birth compared with full-length CLDN18 gene control mice. By 20 to 30 weeks after birth, gastric tissues from uninfected CLDN18-knockout mice developed intraepithelial neoplasia that invaded the submucosa; by 2 years, gastric tissues contained large and focally dysplastic polypoid tumors with invasive glands that invaded the serosa.
H pylori infection of B6:129 mice reduced the expression of CLDN18 early in gastric cancer progression, similar to previous observations from human gastric tissues. CLDN18 regulates cell lineage differentiation and cellular signaling in mouse stomach; CLDN18-knockout mice develop intraepithelial neoplasia and then large and focally dysplastic polypoid tumors in the absence of H pylori infection.
To determine whether metabolic imaging with the use of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) identifies metabolic differences between normal oocytes and those with metabolic dysfunction.
Academic research laboratories.
Oocytes from mice with global knockout of Clpp (caseinolytic peptidase P; n = 52) were compared with wild-type (WT) oocytes (n = 55) as a model of severe oocyte dysfunction. Oocytes from old mice (1 year old; n = 29) were compared with oocytes from young mice (12 weeks old; n = 35) as a model of mild oocyte dysfunction.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S):
FLIM was used to measure the naturally occurring nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) autofluorescence in individual oocytes. Eight metabolic parameters were obtained from each measurement (4 per fluorophore): short (τ1) and long (τ2) fluorescence lifetime, fluorescence intensity (I), and fraction of the molecule engaged with enzyme (F). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and blastocyst development rates were measured to assess illumination safety.
In Clpp-knockout oocytes compared with WT, FAD τ1 and τ2 were longer and I was higher, NADH τ2 was longer, and F was lower. In old oocytes compared with young ones, FAD τ1 was longer and I was lower, NADH τ1 and τ2 were shorter, and I and F were lower. FLIM did not affect ROS levels or blastocyst development rates.
FLIM parameters exhibit strong differentiation between Clpp-knockout versus WT, and old versus young oocytes, FLIM could potentially be used as a noninvasive tool to assess mitochondrial function in oocytes.
Dengue virus is a major human pathogen that infects over 390 million people annually leading to approximately 500 000 hospitalizations due to severe dengue. Since the only marketed vaccine, Dengvaxia, has recently been shown to increase disease severity in those lacking natural immunity, antivirals to prevent or treat dengue infection represent a large, unmet medical need. Small molecules that target the dengue virus envelope protein, E, on the surface of the virion could act analogously to antibodies by engaging E extracellularly to block infection; however, a shortage of target-based assays suitable for screening and medicinal chemistry studies has limited efforts in this area. Here we demonstrate that the dengue E protein offers a tractable drug target for preventing dengue infection by developing a target-based assay using a recombinantly expressed dengue serotype 2 E protein. We performed a high-throughput screen of ∼20 000 compounds followed by secondary assays to confirm target-binding and antiviral activity and counter-screens to exclude compounds with nonspecific activities. These efforts yielded eight distinct chemical leads that inhibit dengue infection by binding to E and preventing E-mediated membrane fusion with potencies equal to or greater than previously described small molecule inhibitors of E. We show that a subset of these compounds inhibit viruses representative of the other three dengue serotypes and Zika virus. This work provides tools for discovery and optimization of direct-acting antivirals against dengue E and shows that this approach may be useful in developing antivirals with broad-spectrum activity against other flavivirus pathogens.
The observed MIC may depend on the number of bacteria initially inoculated into the assay. This phenomenon is termed the inoculum effect(IE) and is often most pronounced for β-lactams in strains expressing β-lactamase enzymes. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI)-recommended inoculum is 5 × 105 CFU ml-1 with an acceptable range of 2 × 105 to 8 × 105 CFU ml-1 IE testing is typically performed using an inoculum 100-fold greater than the CLSI-recommended inoculum. Therefore, it remains unknown whether the IE influences MICs during testing performed according to CLSI guidelines. Here, we utilized inkjet printing technology to test the IE on cefepime, meropenem, and ceftazidime-avibactam. First, we determined that the inkjet dispense volume correlated well with the number of bacteria delivered to microwells in 2-fold (R2 = 0.99) or 1.1-fold (R2 = 0.98) serial dilutions. We then quantified the IE by dispensing orthogonal titrations of bacterial cells and antibiotics. For cefepime-resistant and susceptible dose-dependent strains, a 2-fold increase in inoculum resulted in a 1.6 log2-fold increase in MIC. For carbapenemase-producing strains, each 2-fold reduction in inoculum resulted in a 1.26 log2-fold reduction in meropenem MIC. At the lower end of the CLSI-allowable inoculum range, minor error rates of 34.8% were observed for meropenem when testing a resistant-strain set. Ceftazidime-avibactam was not subject to an appreciable IE. Our results suggest that IE is sufficiently pronounced for meropenem and cefepime in multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens to affect categorical interpretations during standard laboratory testing.
Electrical stimulation of the central and peripheral nervous systems - such as deep brain stimulation, spinal cord stimulation, and epidural cortical stimulation are common therapeutic options increasingly used to treat a large variety of neurological and psychiatric conditions. Despite their remarkable success, there are limitations which if overcome, could enhance outcomes and potentially reduce common side-effects. Micromagnetic stimulation (μMS) was introduced to address some of these limitations. One of the most remarkable properties is that μMS is theoretically capable of activating neurons with specific axonal orientations. Here, we used computational electromagnetic models of the μMS coils adjacent to neuronal tissue combined with axon cable models to investigate μMS orientation-specific properties. We found a 20-fold reduction in the stimulation threshold of the preferred axonal orientation compared to the orthogonal direction. We also studied the directional specificity of μMS coils by recording the responses evoked in the inferior colliculus of rodents when a pulsed magnetic stimulus was applied to the surface of the dorsal cochlear nucleus. The results confirmed that the neuronal responses were highly sensitive to changes in the μMS coil orientation. Accordingly, our results suggest that μMS has the potential of stimulating target nuclei in the brain without affecting the surrounding white matter tracts.
Clinical trial data are the gold standard for evaluating pharmaceutical safety and efficacy. There is an ethical and scientific imperative for transparency and data sharing to confirm published results and generate new knowledge. The Open Translational Science in Schizophrenia (OPTICS) Project was an open-science initiative aggregating Janssen clinical trial and NIH/NIMH data from real-world studies and trials in schizophrenia. The project aims were to show the value of using shared data to examine: therapeutic safety and efficacy; disease etiologies and course; and methods development. The success of project investigators was due to collaboration from project applications through analyses, with support from the Harvard Catalyst. Project work was independent of Janssen; all intellectual property was dedicated to the public. Efforts such as this are necessary to gain deeper insights into the biology of disease, foster collaboration, and to achieve the goal of developing better treatments, reducing the overall public health burden of devastating brain diseases.
People with schizophrenia are at considerably higher risk of cardiometabolic morbidity than the general population. Second-generation antipsychotic drugs contribute to that risk partly through their weight gain effects, exacerbating an already high burden of disease. While standard ‘as-randomized’ analyses of clinical trials provide valuable information, they ignore adherence patterns across treatment arms, confounding estimates of realized treatment exposure on outcome. We assess the effect of specific second-generation antipsychotics on weight gain, defined as at least a 7% increase in weight from randomization, using a Bayesian hierarchical model network meta-analysis with individual patient level data. Our data consisted of 14 randomized clinical trials contributing 5923 subjects (mean age = 39 [SD = 12]) assessing various combinations of olanzapine (n = 533), paliperidone (n = 3482), risperidone (n = 540), and placebo (n = 1368). The median time from randomization to dropout or trial completion was 6 weeks (range: 0–60 weeks). The unadjusted probability of weight gain in the placebo group was 4.8% across trials. For each 10 g chlorpromazine equivalent dose increase in olanzapine, the odds of weight gain increased by 5 (95% credible interval: 1.4, 5.3); the effect of risperidone (odds ratio = 1.6 [0.25, 9.1]) was estimated with considerable uncertainty but no different from paliperidone (odds ratio = 1.3 [1.2, 1.5]).
To date, no study has evaluated the joint role of symptoms and adverse events as mediators of the effect of second-generation antipsychotics on patients’ social functioning. We used recently developed methods for mediation analysis with multiple mediators to clarify the interplay of adverse events and symptoms in explaining the effects of paliperidone (R code for implementing the mediation analysis for multiple mediators is provided). We used data from 490 participants in a 6-week randomized dose–response trial that assigned three fixed dosages of ER OROS paliperidone (3, 9, and 15 mg/day). The primary outcome was an individual’s score on the social performance scale assessed after 6 weeks. The sum of Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), weight gain, and extrapyramidal symptoms measured via the Simpson–Angus Scale after 5 weeks were investigated as potential mediators and effect modifiers of treatment effects. Results from mediation analyses showed that the improvements in social functioning are partly explained by reduction in PANSS symptoms. Suggestive evidence that adverse events could play a role as mediators was found. In particular, weight gain displayed a non-linear relationship with social functioning, whereby beneficial effects observed at small levels of weight gain were reduced in the presence of excessive weight gain. In conclusion, we found that the short-term effects of paliperidone on social functioning were dependent on the successful reduction in PANSS symptoms and possibly the occurrence of excessive weight gain, thus suggesting future directions for treatment and interventions.
Mediation analysis allows decomposing a total effect into a direct effect of the exposure on the outcome and an indirect effect operating through a number of possible hypothesized pathways. Recent studies have provided formal definitions of direct and indirect effects when multiple mediators are of interest, and have described parametric and semi-parametric methods for their estimation. Investigating direct and indirect effects with multiple mediators, however, can be challenging in the presence of multiple exposure-mediator and mediator-mediator interactions. In this paper we derive a decomposition of the total effect that unifies mediation and interaction when multiple mediators are present. We illustrate the properties of the proposed framework, in a secondary analysis of a pragmatic trial for the treatment of schizophrenia. The decomposition is employed to investigate the interplay of side-effects and psychiatric symptoms in explaining the effect of antipsychotic on quality of life in schizophrenia patients. Our result offers a valuable tool to identify the proportions of total effect due to mediation and interaction when more than one mediator is present, providing the finest decomposition of the total effect that unifies multiple mediators and interactions.
In calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), microcalcifications originating from nanoscale calcifying vesicles disrupt the aortic valve (AV) leaflets, which consist of three (biomechanically) distinct layers: the fibrosa, spongiosa, and ventricularis. CAVD has no pharmacotherapy and lacks in vitro models as a result of complex valvular biomechanical features surrounding resident mechanosensitive valvular interstitial cells (VICs). We measured layer-specific mechanical properties of the human AV and engineered a three-dimensional (3D)-bioprinted CAVD model that recapitulates leaflet layer biomechanics for the first time. Human AV leaflet layers were separated by microdissection, and nanoindentation determined layer-specific Young’s moduli. Methacrylated gelatin (GelMA)/methacrylated hyaluronic acid (HAMA) hydrogels were tuned to duplicate layer-specific mechanical characteristics, followed by 3D-printing with encapsulated human VICs. Hydrogels were exposed to osteogenic media (OM) to induce microcalcification, and VIC pathogenesis was assessed by near infrared or immunofluorescence microscopy. Median Young’s moduli of the AV layers were 37.1, 15.4, and 26.9 kPa (fibrosa/spongiosa/ventricularis, respectively). The fibrosa and spongiosa Young’s moduli matched the 3D 5% GelMa/1% HAMA UV-crosslinked hydrogels. OM stimulation of VIC-laden bioprinted hydrogels induced microcalcification without apoptosis. We report the first layer-specific measurements of human AV moduli and a novel 3D-bioprinted CAVD model that potentiates microcalcification by mimicking the native AV mechanical environment. This work sheds light on valvular mechanobiology and could facilitate high-throughput drug-screening in CAVD.
Antibiotic resistance is compromising our ability to treat bacterial infections. Clinical microbiology laboratories guide appropriate treatment through antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) of patient bacterial isolates. However, increasingly, pathogens are developing resistance to a broad range of antimicrobials, requiring AST of alternative agents for which no commercially available testing methods are available. Therefore, there exists a significant AST testing gap in which current methodologies cannot adequately address the need for rapid results in the face of unpredictable susceptibility profiles. To address this gap, we developed a multicomponent, microscopy-based AST (MAST) platform capable of AST determinations after only a 2 h incubation. MAST consists of a solid-phase microwell growth surface in a 384-well plate format, inkjet printing-based application of both antimicrobials and bacteria at any desired concentrations, automated microscopic imaging of bacterial replication, and a deep learning approach for automated image classification and determination of antimicrobial minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs). In evaluating a susceptible strain set, 95.8% were within ±1 and 99.4% were within ±2, twofold dilutions, respectively, of reference broth microdilution MIC values. Most (98.3%) of the results were in categorical agreement. We conclude that MAST offers promise for rapid, accurate, and flexible AST to help address the antimicrobial testing gap.
Chemical clocks usually achieve well-defined temporal delays through concentration thresholding coupled to the production, degradation, activation, or inhibition of downstream effectors. In this way, the stochastic dynamics of many individual molecules yield essentially deterministic bulk behavior through ensemble averaging. As a result, their temporal evolution is governed by ensemble dynamics rather than by the behavior of an individual molecule or complex. Here, we present a general approach for the design of single-molecule clocks that permits quasi-deterministic control over the lifetime of single molecular interactions without any external synchronization. By coupling the dissociation of a bimolecular complex to a series of irreversible chemical steps, we interpose a well-defined time delay between binding and dissociation. The number and speed of irreversible steps can be varied to systematically tune both the lifetimes of complexes and the precision of the time delay, raising the prospect of localized timekeeping in nanoscale systems and devices.
Microscopic interpretation of stained smears is one of the most operator-dependent and time intensive activities in the clinical microbiology laboratory. Here, we investigated application of an automated image acquisition and convolutional neural network (CNN)-based approach for automated Gram stain classification. Using an automated microscopy platform, uncoverslipped slides were scanned with a 40x dry objective, generating images of sufficient resolution for interpretation. We collected 25,488 images from positive blood culture Gram stains prepared during routine clinical workup. These images were used to generate 100,213 crops containing Gram-positive cocci in clusters, Gram-positive cocci in chains/pairs, Gram-negative rods, or background (no cells). These categories were targeted for proof-of-concept development as they are associated with the majority of bloodstream infections. Our CNN model achieved classification accuracy of 94.9% on a test set of image crops. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis indicated a robust ability to differentiate between categories with area under the curve >0.98 for each. After training and validation, we applied the classification algorithm to new images collected from 189 whole slides without human intervention. Sensitivity/specificity was 98.4/75.0% for Gram-positive cocci in chains/pairs; 93.2/97.2% for Gram-positive cocci in clusters; and 96.3/98.1% for Gram-negative rods. Taken together, our data support proof-of-concept for a fully automated classification methodology for blood-culture Gram-stains. Importantly, the algorithm was highly adept at identifying image crops with organisms and could be used to present prescreened, classified crops to technologists to accelerate smear review. This concept could potentially be extended to all Gram stain interpretive activities in the clinical laboratory.
The need to identify the most viable embryo following in vitro fertilization (IVF) was established early in the history of human IVF. The stalwart of identifying the best embryos has been morphology. Other techniques have however seen wide acceptance, including the use of preimplantation genetic screening, even though concerns exist over the invasive nature of the technique. Alternatively, noninvasive assessment technologies have tried to determine an embryo's viability through measurements of factors in the media or by imaging of the embryo. We present data showing that the metabolic blueprint of an embryo is linked to viability, and argue that analysis of metabolic function, using either spent medium or by novel microscopies, could provide the basis for selecting the embryo with the highest viability. This review therefore asks, "Will noninvasive methods surpass invasive for assessing gametes and embryos?" We examine the current state of research on noninvasive technologies, including novel optical methods, and conclude noninvasive embryo viability assessment will assist in embryo selection for transfer.