What we do:

 We study how and why the human body is the way it is from head to toe in both the field and the laboratory.

Evolutionary Anatomy and Physiology

We develop and test biomechanical and physiological models of how the human musculoskeletal system evolved to perform important physical activities. Our focus is the evolution of human physical activity, including its relevance to health and disease.

Key activities we study include:  standing, walking, running, carrying, digging, throwing, chewing, and more. 

We study these activities literally from head to toe including:  feet, knees, the pelvis, the spine, the shoulders, the arms and the head. 

The methods we use integrate a variety of experimental techniques including high speed 3D kinematics, kinetics, electromyography, strain gauges, and respirometry. We also use numerous imaging methodologies including CT, ultrasound, MRI, and histology. 

Current projects include:

  • The effects of shoes on the development and function of the foot
  • Foot biomechanics in walking and running
  • Biomechanics of the knee during walking and running
  • Effects of bone metabolism on bone growth
  • Adaptations for ventilation during running
  • Upper body function during walking and running
  • Head stabilization during locomotion
  • How phsyical activity and energy affect the immune system
  • The biomechanics of carrying
  • The biomechanics of digging
  • The biomechanics of throwing


Evolutionary Medicine

Many of the above research questions we ask are motivated by an interest in using evolutionary theory and data to find new, better ways to prevent and treat musculoskeletal disease. These currently include:

  • Prevention of osteoarthritis
  • How variations in shoe design may help prevent flat feet (pes planus) as well as high-arched feet (pes cavus)
  • Preventing running injuries
  • Treating and preventing lower back pain
  • Understanding cephalopelvic disproportion (when a fetus is too large to pass through the mother’s birth canal)


Field Research

Nandi Hills and Eldoret, Kenya

Since 2009, we have been working in the Nandi Hills and Uasin Gishu Counties, Kenya, primarily in the city of Eldoret and in the rural community of Kobujoi.  There we study differences between Kalenjin-speaking people who are traditional subsistence farmers and those who have post-industrial lifestyles. Research questions include differences between barefoot and shod running, the effects of shoes on foot structure and development, how physical activity and muscle strength affects the lumbar lordosis and other aspects of the body, and more.  This research is in collaboration with researchers at Moi Medical School, including Prof. Robert Ojiambo and Dr. Paul Okutoyi.

 Running test subject


The Sierra Tarahumara, Mexico

The Tarahumara (Ràràmuri) are among the last Native American peoples who still practice subsistence farming.  Since 2012, we have been studying their running biomechanics. We are also now studying musculoskeletal and cardiovascular aging in this population in collaboration with researchers at Massachusetts General Hospital (Dr. Aaron Baggish) and the University of British Columbia (Prof. Robert Shave), and with the assistance of Mickey Mahaffey and Silvino Cubesare. 

Tarahumara test subjects

Tarahumara runners