In recent history, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, has been a major focus of public health research. In early 20th century, for example,  tuberculosis was one of the UK’s major public health concerns. In 1902 a group converged with the aim to understand and then wipe out tuberculosis. After discovering the contagious nature of the disease, massive efforts were made to contain, and prevent the spread of TB.

In 1906, the first effective vaccine against TB was developed from a bovine strain by  Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin. It was used on humans for the first time in 1921, but was not implemented in a large scale fashion until after World War II.

In more recent history, surgical techniques such as the pneumothorax or plombage have been developed to treat TB.