Solving strongly coupled gauge theories in two or three spatial dimensions is of fundamental importance in several areas of physics ranging from high-energy physics to condensed matter. On a lattice, gauge invariance and gauge invariant (plaquette) interactions involve (at least) four-body interactions that are challenging to realize. Here we show that Rydberg atoms in configurable arrays realized in current tweezer experiments are the natural platform to realize scalable simulators of the Rokhsar-Kivelson Hamiltonian –a 2D U(1) lattice gauge theory that describes quantum dimer and spin-ice dynamics. Using an electromagnetic duality, we implement the plaquette interactions as Rabi oscillations subject to Rydberg blockade. Remarkably, we show that by controlling the atom arrangement in the array we can engineer anisotropic interactions and generalized blockade conditions for spins built of atom pairs. We describe how to prepare the resonating valence bond and the crystal phases of the Rokhsar-Kivelson Hamiltonian adiabatically, and probe them and their quench dynamics by on-site measurements of their quantum correlations. We discuss the potential applications of our Rydberg simulator to lattice gauge theory and exotic spin models.
Critical drag is thus a mechanism for resistivity that, unlike conventional mechanisms, is unrelated to broken symmetries. We furthermore argue that an emergent symmetry that has the appropriate mixed anomaly with electric charge is in fact an inevitable consequence of compressibility in systems with lattice translation symmetry. Critical drag therefore seems to be the only way (other than through irrelevant perturbations breaking the emergent symmetry, that disappear at the renormalization group fixed point) to get nonzero resistivity in such systems. Finally, we present a very simple and concrete model -- the "Quantum Lifshitz Model" -- that illustrates the critical drag mechanism as well as the other considerations of the paper.
The study of topological superconductivity is largely based on the analysis of mean-field Hamiltonians that violate particle number conservation and have only short-range interactions. Although this approach has been very successful, it is not clear that it captures the topological properties of real superconductors, which are described by number-conserving Hamiltonians with long-range interactions. To address this issue, we study topological superconductivity directly in the number-conserving setting.