Council of Europe

2013
Kervinen E, Heiskanen M. Study on International Activities in the Field of Data Collection on Gender Based Violence Across the EU. European Institute for Gender Equality; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://eige.europa.eu/node/356

The report first summarises the policy framework on combating gender-based violence in the European Union, the United Nations and the Council of Europe.

Secondly, the findings of the study are presented organisation by organisation. Past as well as on-going activities will be discussed, after which future plans will be explored. Finally, the main findings will be discussed.

2012
Meyersfeld BC. Introductory Note to the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence. International Legal Materials [Internet]. 2012;51 (1) :106-132. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5305/intelegamate.51.1.0106

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (‘‘Convention’’)1 joins a small number of treaties imposing specific obligations on member states to prevent and address violence against women. The Convention is notable both for its encapsulation of best practices in combating violence against women and for its confirmation that all forms of violence against women, including domestic violence, are human rights violations for which states are responsible.

Meyersfeld BC. Introductory Note to the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence. International LEgal Materials [Internet]. 2012;51 (1) :106-132. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5305/intelegamate.51.1.0106

The Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence (‘‘Convention’’)1 joins a small number of treaties imposing specific obligations on member states to prevent and address violence against women. The Convention is notable both for its encapsulation of best practices in combating violence against women and for its confirmation that all forms of violence against women, including domestic violence, are human rights violations for which states are responsible.

The Istanbul Convention and the CEDAW framework: A comparison of measures to prevent and combat violence against women. Council of Europe; 2012. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.coe.int/en/web/genderequality/violence-against-women

Located under "Information About the Instanbul Convention."

 

The Istanbul Convention codifies established standards, jurisprudence and developments at international level, as well as best practice at national level, thereby lending them more weight and ensuring their wider application. Drawing in particular on the framework of measures of the Convention on the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW) and case law developed by the CEDAW Committee, it is firmly based on the premise that violence against women cannot be eradicated without investing in gender equality and that in turn, only real gender equality and a change in attitudes can truly prevent such violence.

The following tables describe the manner in which the Istanbul Convention builds on the three sources that constitute the CEDAW framework: the Convention, General Recommendations and case law. The tables also show how the Istanbul Convention complements these instruments by establishing a more detailed catalogue of legally-binding obligations to prevent and respond to violence against women. The tables do not however contain a detailed explanation of the extensive list of obligations under the Istanbul Convention. 

2011
Kleinsorge T. Legal protection of children from sexual exploitation: The “Lanzarote Convention” and the One in Five campaign. [Internet]. 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://srsg.violenceagainstchildren.org/knowledge/law_reform

It is estimated that one in five children fall victim to sexual violence – a serious human rights violation the Council of Europe has decided to combat through: 1. legislative harmonization - The Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote Convention) is the most advanced and complete standard in this field 2. awareness-raising and political action – The Council of Europe campaign ONE in FIVE to stop sexual violence against children and its parliamentary dimension aims to raise awareness of the full extent of sexual violence against children in our societies and promote appropriate policies to stop this violence
2010
Towards a Europe Free from All Forms of Male Violence against Women. European Women's Lobby; 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

 

The Council of Europe Task Force to Combat Violence against Women, including Domestic Violence (EG-TFV), was set up following a decision taken at the Third Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe held in Warsaw on 16 and 17 May 2005. The Action Plan adopted at the Summit defines future action by the Council of Europe and envisages activities to combat vio- lence against women, including domestic violence. Section II.4 of the Plan states:

“The Council of Europe will take meas- ures to combat violence against women, including domestic violence. It will set up a task force to evaluate progress at national level and establish instruments for quantifying develop- ments at pan-European level with a view to drawing up proposals for action. A pan-European campaign to combat violence against women, in- cluding domestic violence, will be pre- pared and conducted in close co- operation with other European and na- tional actors, including NGOs.”

Accordingly, eight international experts in the field of preventing and combating violence against women were appointed to the Task Force by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The Steering Committee

for Equality between Women and Men (CDEG) proposed six members of the Task Force, while the Parlia- mentary Assembly and the Congress of Regional and Local Authorities of the Council of Europe proposed one member each. The appointments were made in consultation with the Committee of Ministers' Thematic Co-ordinator on Equality between Women and Men (TC-EG) and the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights. 

2009
Submission to the Council of Europe Ad Hoc Committee on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence. International Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Trans and Intersex Association [Internet]. 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.ilga-europe.org/resources/policy-papers/submission-coe-ad-hoc-committee-preventing-and-combating-violence-against

Lesbian, bisexual and transgender (“LBT”) women experience gender-based violence both on account of their gender and because of the way their sexual orientation or gender identity challenges patriarchal concepts of gender and gender roles.

This double exposure to causes of gender-based violence puts them at particular risk. A recent survey by London’s Metropolitan Police of more than 1100 LBT women found that approximately twice as many had experienced violence or abuse on account of their sexual orientation or gender identity as on all other grounds, despite the fact that nearly half of respondents changed their behaviour or appearance to avoid homophobic or transphobic abuse.

This double exposure also means that violence against them can only be addressed effectively by the Convention if the part played by homophobia and transphobia is acknowledged and specific counter-measures identified.

However, there is a further reason to acknowledge explicitly violence against LBT women. Regrettably, as the Committee of Ministers has stressed, homophobia and transphobia are widespread in Europe.2 Without specific references in the Convention it remains all too possible that its measures will not be used to combat violence against LBT women.

Inclusion of such references would be an effective response to the invitation of the Committee of Ministers to all intergovernmental committees to make proposals to strengthen, in law and in practice, the equal rights and dignity of LGBT persons and to combat discriminatory attitudes against them.

This submission therefore recommends that the Convention identify groups of women who are especially vulnerable to violence, including specifically LBT women, and suggests areas where particular measures are required to address violence against them, such as awareness-raising, education, improving confidence by LBT women in law enforcement agencies, increasing the level of incidents reported to the police, and specific training for agencies involved in victim support.

It also recommends that the non-discrimination clause of the Convention makes explicit reference to sexual orientation and gender identity.

Smet M. Sexual Violence Against Women in Armed Conflict - Council of Europe. Council of Europe; 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-DocDetails-EN.asp?fileid=12691&...

Sexual violence against women in armed conflict is a crime against humanity, a war crime, and an unacceptable – but, unfortunately, effective – weapon of war. Raping, sexually assaulting and mutilating, forcibly impregnating and infecting with HIV/AIDS the wives, daughters and mothers of the “enemy” not only have terrible physical and psychological effects on the victims themselves, but are capable of disrupting, if not destroying, whole communities.

It has taken centuries for sexual violence against women in armed conflict to be outlawed. It was not until 2008 that the international community, via United Nations Security Council Resolution 1820 on women, peace and security, recognised that rape and other forms of sexual violence can constitute a war crime, a crime against humanity, and a constitutive act with respect to genocide.

However, sexual violence against women in armed conflict is unfortunately still common – it was a constitutive feature of the Balkan wars little more than a decade ago. Today, the main victims of this crime are found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (especially in Kivu) and in Sudan (especially in Darfur). To this day, thousands of victims are denied access to justice, reparation and redress. The lives of the victims remain blighted in many ways while the perpetrators enjoy almost complete impunity for their crimes.

Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Explanatory Report). Council of Europe [Internet]. 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=201&CM=8&DF=06/07/2015&CL=ENG

I. The Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe took note of this Explanatory Report at its 1002nd meeting held at its Deputies' level, on 12 July 2007. The Convention was opened for signature in Lanzarote (Spain), on 25 October 2007, on the occasion of the 28th Conference of European Ministers of Justice.

II. The text of this explanatory report does not constitute an instrument providing an authoritative interpretation of the Convention, although it might be of such a nature as to facilitate the application of the provisions contained therein.

2008
including Task Force to Combat Violence against Women DV (EG-TFV). Council of Europe Task Force to Combat Violence against Women, including Domestic Violence (Final Activity Report). Council of Europe - Gender Equality and Anti-Trafficking Division [Internet]. 2008. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://web.archive.org/web/20150529130044/http://www.coe.int/t/dg2/equal...

 

The Council of Europe will take meas- ures to combat violence against women, including domestic violence. It will set up a task force to evaluate progress at national level and establish instruments for quantifying develop- ments at pan-European level with a view to drawing up proposals for action. A pan-European campaign to combat violence against women, in- cluding domestic violence, will be pre- pared and conducted in close co- operation with other European and na- tional actors, including NGOs. 

 

including Task Force to Combat Violence against Women DV (EG-TFV). Council of Europe Task Force to Combat Violence against Women, including Domestic Violence (Final Activity Report). Council of Europe - Gender Equality and Anti-Trafficking Division [Internet]. 2008. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://web.archive.org/web/20150529130044/http://www.coe.int/t/dg2/equal...

 

 

The Council of Europe will take meas- ures to combat violence against women, including domestic violence. It will set up a task force to evaluate progress at national level and establish instruments for quantifying develop- ments at pan-European level with a view to drawing up proposals for action. A pan-European campaign to combat violence against women, in- cluding domestic violence, will be pre- pared and conducted in close co- operation with other European and na- tional actors, including NGOs. 

 

The Council of Europe Campaign to Combat Violence against Women, including Domestic Violence. Directorate General of Human Rights and Legal Affairs: Gender Equality and Anti-Trafficking Division; 2008. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.coe.int/t/dg2/equality/domesticviolencecampaign/Fact_Sheet_en...

Violence against women, including domestic violence, is one of the most serious forms of gender-based violations of human rights. It deprives women of their ability to enjoy fundamental freedoms and represents a serious obstacle to equality between women and men. 

Despite positive and significant achievements in policies and practices, violence against women in its various forms is still widespread at all levels of society in all Council of Europe member states.

An overview of figures for prevalence of violence against women suggests that one-fifth to one-quarter of all women have experienced physical violence at least once during their adult lives, and more than one-tenth have suffered sexual violence involving the use of force. Secondary data analysis supports an estimate that about 12% to 15% of all women have been in a relationship of domestic abuse after the age of 16. Many more continue to suffer physical and sexual violence from former partners even after the break-up.

Final Activity Report: Task Force to Combat Violence against Women, including Domestic Violence (EG-TFV). Council of Europe [Internet]. 2008. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://eige.europa.eu/node/1924

The Council of Europe Task Force to Combat Violence against Women, including Domestic Violence (EG-TFV), was set up following a decision taken at the Third Summit of Heads of State and Government of the Council of Europe held in Warsaw on 16 and 17 May 2005. The Action Plan adopted at the Summit defines future action by the Council of Europe and envisages activities to combat vio- lence against women, including domestic violence. Section II.4 of the Plan states:

“The Council of Europe will take meas- ures to combat violence against women, including domestic violence. It will set up a task force to evaluate progress at national level and establish instruments for quantifying develop- ments at pan-European level with a view to drawing up proposals for action. A pan-European campaign to combat violence against women, in- cluding domestic violence, will be pre- pared and conducted in close co- operation with other European and na- tional actors, including NGOs.”

Accordingly, eight international experts in the field of preventing and combating violence against women were appointed to the Task Force by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The Steering Committee

for Equality between Women and Men (CDEG) proposed six members of the Task Force, while the Parlia- mentary Assembly and the Congress of Regional and Local Authorities of the Council of Europe proposed one member each. The appointments were made in consultation with the Committee of Ministers' Thematic Co-ordinator on Equality between Women and Men (TC-EG) and the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights. 

2007
Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse. Council of Europe [Internet]. 2007. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?CL=ENG&NT=201

The member States of the Council of Europe and the other signatories hereto;

Considering that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members;

Considering that every child has the right to such measures of protection as are required by his or her status as a minor, on the part of his or her family, society and the State;

Observing that the sexual exploitation of children, in particular child pornography and prostitution, and all forms of sexual abuse of children, including acts which are committed abroad, are destructive to children’s health and psycho-social development;

Observing that the sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children have grown to worrying proportions at both national and international level, in particular as regards the increased use by both children and perpetrators of information and communication technologies (ICTs), and that preventing and combating such sexual exploitation and sexual abuse of children require international co-operation

2005
Council of Europe Action Plan 2005. Council of Europe [Internet]. 2005. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.coe.int/t/dcr/summit/20050517_plan_action_en.asp

We, Heads of State and Government of the Member States of the Council of Europe, meeting in Warsaw on 16 and 17 May 2005, have outlined the following action plan laying down the principal tasks of the Council of Europe in the coming years.

I - PROMOTING COMMON FUNDAMENTAL VALUES: HUMAN RIGHTS, RULE OF LAW AND DEMOCRACY

1. Ensuring the continued effectiveness of the European Convention on Human Rights

◦   We shall ensure the long-term effectiveness of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms by all appropriate means. To this end we shall provide the European Court of Human Rights with the necessary support and implement all the reform measures adopted at the 114th Session of the Committee of Ministers in May 2004, in accordance with all the modalities foreseen. This includes, as envisaged, the ratification of Protocol No. 14 to the Convention, which is essential for the future effectiveness of the European Convention on Human Rights.

Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (Explanatory Report). Council of Europe [Internet]. 2005. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=197&CM=8&DF=06/07/2015&CL=ENG

1.   Trafficking in human beings is a major problem in Europe today. Annually, thousands of people, largely women and children, fall victim to trafficking for sexual exploitation or other purposes, whether in their own countries or abroad. All indicators point to an increase in victim numbers. Action to combat trafficking in human beings is receiving worldwide attention because trafficking threatens the human rights and the fundamental values of democratic societies. 

2.   Action to combat this persistent assault on humanity is one of a number of fronts on which the Council of Europe is battling on behalf of human rights and human dignity.

Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings. Council of Europe; 2005. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/QueVoulezVous.asp?NT=197&CM=8&D...

Trafficking in human beings violates the rights and affects the lives of countless people in Europe and beyond. The Council of Europe Convention on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings, which entered into force on 1 February 2008, aims to prevent trafficking in human beings, protect victims of trafficking, prosecute traffickers, and promote co-ordination of national actions and international co-operation. The countries which have signed up to the Convention are monitored by the Group of Experts on Action against Trafficking in Human Beings (GRETA). The Council of Europe also supports governments in the implementation of the Convention and the recommendations emerging from its monitoring process.

Rude-Antoine E. Forced Marriages in Council of Europe member States. [Internet]. 2005. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://eige.europa.eu/rdc/library/resource/IAV_ADL96337

CDEG (2005) 1 

The Council of Europe is a political organisation which was founded on 5 May 1949 by ten European countries in order to promote greater unity between its members. It now numbers 46 Euro- pean states.1 The main aims of the Or- ganisation are to promote democracy, human rights and the rule of law, and to develop common responses to political, social, cultural and legal challenges in its member states. Since 1989 it has inte- grated most of the countries of central and eastern Europe and supported them in their efforts to implement and con- solidate their political, legal and admin- istrative reforms. 

2002
Council of Europe Recommendation (2002)5 & Explanatory Note. Council of Europe [Internet]. 2002. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://euromed-justice.eu/document/coe-2002-recommendation-rec-5-committ...

The Committee of Ministers, under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe, Reaffirming that violence towards women is the result of an imbalance of power between men and women and is leading to serious discrimination against the female sex, both within society and within the family; Affirming that violence against women both violates and impairs or nullifies the enjoyment of their human rights and fundamental freedoms; Noting that violence against women constitutes a violation of their physical, psychological and/or sexual integrity; Noting with concern that women are often subjected to multiple discrimination on ground of their gender as well as their origin, including as victims of traditional or customary practices inconsistent with their human rights and fundamental freedoms; Considering that violence against women runs counter to the establishment of equality and peace and constitutes a major obstacle to citizens’ security and democracy in Europe; Noting with concern the extent of violence against women in the family, whatever form the family takes, and at all levels of society; Considering it urgent to combat this phenomenon which affects all European societies and concerns all their members

Recommendation Rec(2002)5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of women against violence. Committee of Ministers, Council of Europe [Internet]. 2002. Publisher's VersionAbstract

https://wcd.coe.int/ViewDoc.jsp?id=280915

Recommendation Rec(2002)5 of the Committee of Ministers to member states on the protection of women against violence 1 

(Adopted by the Committee of Ministers on 30 April 2002 at the 794th meeting of the Ministers’ Deputies)

The Committee of Ministers, under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe,

Reaffirming that violence towards women is the result of an imbalance of power between men and women and is leading to serious discrimination against the female sex, both within society and within the family;

Affirming that violence against women both violates and impairs or nullifies the enjoyment of their human rights and fundamental freedoms;

Noting that violence against women constitutes a violation of their physical, psychological and/or sexual integrity;

Noting with concern that women are often subjected to multiple discrimination on ground of their gender as well as their origin, including as victims of traditional or customary practices inconsistent with their human rights and fundamental freedoms.