Domestic

2011
A Long Way to Go: Implementation of the Elimination of Violence against Women Law in Afghanistan. UNAMA; 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Countries/AF/UNAMA_Nov2011.pdf

This report is based on research carried out by UNAMA/OHCHR human rights officers in Kabul and in eight UNAMA regional offices between March 2010 and September 2011. UNAMA/OHCHR officers gathered detailed statistical and substantive information on implementation of the EVAW law by prosecutors, judges and police officers, and on the status of operations of provincial Commissions for Prevention of Violence against Women. 

Manjoo R. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences: Mission to Zambia. United Nations General Assembly; 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Women/SRWomen/Pages/AnnualReports.aspx

2011 - Addendum - Mission to Zambia

This report contains the findings of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, following her visit to Zambia from 6 to 11 December 2010. It examines the situation of violence against women in the country taking into account its causes and consequences. It also discusses the State’s response to prevent such violence, protect and provide remedies to women who have been subjected to such violence, and to prosecute and punish the perpetrators.

Crime Report 2010/2011: Crimes Challenge Facing the SAPS. South African Police Service; 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract

https://www.issafrica.org/search/?q=2010-2011%20crime%20analysis

Annual Report: 2010/2011

The present report deals with the reported national serious crime figures and ratios for the 2010/2011 financial year (that is the period 1 April 2010 - 31 March 2011). These are compared to the figures recorded during the preceding financial years since 2003/2004. The provincial crime figures are also analysed in more detail and some comments made on aspects influencing the crime situation. More detailed crime figures and maps are provided on the SAPS website at www.saps.gov.za.

Baird N. To Ratify or Not to Ratify? An Assessment of the Case for Ratification of International Human Rights Treaties in the Pacific. Melbourne: Melbourne University; 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/journals/MelbJIL/2011/10.html

This article explores whether ratifying international human rights treaties is a useful strategy to advance the cause of human rights in the Pacific. Much of the recent discussion has promoted the advantages of ratification.

The aim of this article is to contribute to the ratification debate by considering the potential responses Pacific states might make to the call for ratification. It assumes that the desired ultimate goal is greater protection of human rights in the Pacific, but suggests that in light of the challenges of ratification, there may be more effective means of advancing human rights in the Pacific than wholesale ratification of outstanding treaties.

While in the long-term ratification remains a worthy goal, in the short-term it may not be the best way forward. Instead, it may be more appropriate to focus on alternative means of advancing human rights. This may be through a combination of stronger domestic means to protect and promote human rights, the development of a Pacific regional mechanism to promote rights, and active engagement with the United Nations’ Human Rights Council’s new Universal Periodic Review (‘UPR’) mechanism. Selective ratification of individual treaties may still be worthwhile, but on a gradual basis, and certainly not wholesale.

Violence against women in Australia: Research summary. State Government of Victoria; 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract

https://www.vichealth.vic.gov.au/media-and-resources/publications/violen...

This publication presents a synopsis of the latest published research examining violence against women in Australia and its prevention. This summary focuses on: 

  • the extent of violence against women 
  • population groups at risk 
  • the health, economic and other consequences of the problem 
  • factors that underlie and contribute to violence against women 
  • themes for action to prevent violence against women from happening in the first place.
2010
Manjoo R. Report of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, Rashida Manjoo - Follow up Mission to El Salvador. United Nations Human Rights, Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights; 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Women/SRWomen/Pages/CountryVisits.aspx

Can be found under: El Salvador (March 2010)

The present report contains the findings of the Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences, following her follow-up mission to El Salvador, last visited by the mandate in 2004 (E/CN.4/2005/72/Add.2). She explores the extent to which the recommendations made in the previous report have been implemented by examining the most prevalent forms of violence encountered currently by women and girls in El Salvador, the State response to such violence, and the main remaining challenges.

Despite the Government’s intention to fulfil its due diligence obligations in the area of gender equality and violence against women, significant challenges remain. As the previous mandate holder pointed out, the failure of authorities to investigate, prosecute and punish those responsible for gender-based violence contributed to an environment of impunity that resulted in little confidence in the justice system; impunity for crimes, socio- economic disparities and the machista culture fostered a generalized state of violence, subjecting women to a continuum of multiple violent acts, including murder, rape, domestic violence, sexual harassment and commercial sexual exploitation. The discussions held and the information received during the visit suggested that the situation has changed little in El Salvador. In addition to the effective implementation of the law, remaining challenges relate to sexual and reproductive rights, in particular with regard to the consequences of the absolute ban on abortions, and the need to establish a comprehensive 

system on data collection to guide policy and monitor progress in the field of violence against women.

In the light of the information received, the Special Rapporteur considers the recommendations in her predecessor’s report still relevant and applicable, and thus supports and reiterates the need to take action in five ways: (a) to create a gender-sensitive information and knowledge base, including through the creation of a statistical commission; (b) to ensure the protection of women and girls through legislative, investigative and judicial reforms, including through the establishment of a specialized investigation and prosecution unit on femicides; (c) to strengthen institutional infrastructure, including through the allocation of appropriate resources, to ensure sustainability and effectiveness; (d) to initiate further training and awareness programmes; and (e) to monitor the implementation of and enforce international and regional human rights standards. 

Intimate Partner Violence and Sexual Violence in Alaska - Key Results from the 2010 Alaska Victimization Survey. University of Alaska Anchorage - Justice Center; 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://justice.uaa.alaska.edu/avs/alaska.html

"Summary of Estimates" on right side

The 2010 Alaska Victimization Survey for Alaska statewide was conducted from May to June 2010. Results were released on September 30, 2010 in Anchorage. Findings include:

  • About 59% of adult women in Alaska have experienced intimate partner violence, sexual violence or both, in their lifetime;
  • Nearly 12% have experienced intimate partner violence, sexual violence or both, in the past year; 
  • About 37% of adult women in the Alaska have experienced sexual violence in their lifetime; and 
  • About 48% have experienced intimate partner violence in their lifetime.
Women, Peace and Security: Canada Moves Forward to Increase Women's Engagement. Standing Senate Committee on Human Rights; 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.parl.gc.ca/Content/SEN/Committee/403/huma/rep/rep05nov10-e.htm

From September 2009 to April 2010, the Standing Senate Committee on Human Rights conducted a study of United Nations Security Council (UNSC) resolution 1325 on women, peace and security, which was adopted unanimously by the Council in October 2000. The Committee focused its study on the implementation of the resolution by the UN and, in particular, Canada. Resolution 1325 was the first adopted by the Security Council to explicitly address the impact of armed conflict on women. It introduced a set of international standards for all UN member states, conflict belligerents, the UN system and its peacekeeping forces, and other stakeholders. Under the resolution, these actors must take varying steps to ensure that efforts to prevent resolve and rebuild from armed conflict incorporate the perspectives of women. They must facilitate women‘s full involvement in relevant decision-making. The resolution also calls for full implementation of international law relevant to armed conflict, condemning any violations of the rights and security of women.

This landmark resolution has since been strengthened by three additional Security Council resolutions. Resolution 1820 on sexual violence in armed conflict (2008) has as its sole objective the improvement of efforts to protect women and girls in conflict situations and to prosecute cases of human rights abuses against women therein – particularly sexual violence. Resolution 1888 (2009) institutes more robust implementing commitments. Resolution 1889 (2009) targets post-conflict peacebuilding.

Children in Indonesia: Child Trafficking. UNICEF; 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.unicef.org/indonesia/media_11823.html

A ‘child victim of trafficking’ is any person under the age of 18 who is recruited, transported, transferred, harboured or received for the purpose of exploitation, either within or outside a country. Child trafficking affects children throughout the world, in both industrialized and developing countries. Trafficked children are often subjected to prostitution, forced into marriage or illegally adopted; they provide cheap or unpaid labour, work as house servants or beggars, are recruited into armed groups and are used for sports. Trafficking exposes children to violence, sexual abuse and HIV infection and violates their rights to be protected, grow up in a family environment and have access to education. 

Towards a Europe Free from All Forms of Male Violence against Women. European Women's Lobby; 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.womenlobby.org/spip.php?article934&lang=en

This position paper constitutes the basis for the European Women’s Lobby (EWL) and its members to develop advocacy work on the issue of male violence against women at European and national level. It highlights the EWL position on the issue and presents its recommendations towards a Europe free form all forms of male violence against women.

Din NU ed. Pakistan: State of Human Rights in 2010. Human Rights Commission of Pakistan; 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://hrcp-web.org/publication/book/annual-report-2010-english/

Ratification by Pakistan of all core international human rights treaties was among the positive highlights of the year, although the benefits were not immediately visible to the people. Two new laws were enacted to deal with sexual harassment. The Commission of Enquiry on Missing Persons cited the intelligence agenciesí role in enforced disappearances and for the first time the Supreme Court issued notices to these agenciesí heads. In the conflict-ravaged Swat region, the Taliban could no longer patrol the roads or flog citizens. The activities of non-governmental organisations grew, although many of the threats they faced also increased. 

Family Violence - A National Legal Response (ALRC 114 Summary). Australian Law Reform Commission [Internet]. 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/family-violence-national-legal-respo...

This 76-page Summary Report provides an accessible overview of the policy framework and recommendations in the two-volume Final Report, Family Violence - A National Legal Response (ALRC Report 114).

It offers a consideration of the framework for the reform, including a description of the development of the key principles underpinning the 187 final recommendations. The recommendations are then considered as an expression of two principal themes—improving legal frameworks and improving practice, concluding with a summary of the net effect of the recommendations.

Tashkandi A, Rasheed FP. Wife abuse: a hidden problem. A study among Saudi women attending PHC centres. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal [Internet]. 2010;15 (5) :1242-1253. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.emro.who.int/emhj-volume-15-2009/volume-15-issue-5/wife-abuse...

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to measure the prevalence, severity and type of wife abuse experienced by ever-married women attending primary health centres in Medina, Saudi Arabia.

Women were interviewed in private at health centres using a questionnaire which included items from the Modified Conflict Tactic Scale, Kansas Marital Scale and the lie scale of the Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory.

Of 689 eligible women, 25.7% reported physical abuse and 32.8% emotional abuse without physical violence. Of those physically abused, 36.7% suffered minor and 63.3% severe incidents. The lifetime prevalence of abuse among the women was 57.7%. Only 36.7% of 109 abused women had informed and discussed the issue with their primary care physician.

Family Violence - A National Legal Response (ALRC Report 114). Australian Law Reform Commission; 2010. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/family-violence-national-legal-respo...

This Summary Report provides an accessible overview of the policy framework and recommendations in the two-volume Final Report in the Inquiry into family violence by the Australian Law Reform Commission (ALRC) and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission (the Commissions). The full Report sets out in detail the issues raised by the Terms of Reference, and the research and evidence base upon which the Commissions’ recommendations were formulated, including a thorough discussion of stakeholder views and the Commissions’ conclusions.

This Summary Report begins with a snapshot of the context for the Inquiry, including the background to the Terms of Reference. This is followed by a consideration of the framework for the reform, including a description of the development of the key principles underpinning the 187 final recommendations put forward by the Commissions. The recommendations are then considered as an expression of two principal themes—improving legal frameworks and improving practice, concluding with a summary of the net effect of the recommendations.

2009
No More Stolen Sisters: The need for a comprehensive response to discrimination and violence against Indigenous women in Canada. Amnesty International; 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.amnesty.ca/research/reports/no-more-stolen-sisters-the-need-f...

Indigenous women in Canada face much higher rates of violence than other women. In a 2004 Canadian government survey, Indigenous women reported rates of violence, including domestic violence and sexual assault, 3.5 times higher than non-Indigenous women. Studies suggest that assaults against Indigenous women are not only more frequent, they are also often particularly brutal. According to another government survey, young First Nations women are five times more likely than other women to die as a result of violence.

Kelly S. Recent Gains and New Opportunities for Women's Rights in the Gulf Arab States. Freedom House; 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

https://freedomhouse.org/article/womens-activists-see-gains-gulf-arab-st...

Please access the home page of this site to locate this publication.

As the societies of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) undertake the difficult process of enacting social and political change, the unequal status of women stands out as a particularly formidable obstacle. This study presents detailed reports and quantitative ratings on the state of women’s rights in the member states of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC): Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). It is the first installment of a larger project encompassing the entire MENA region, which will be completed in November 2009. Although the study indicates that a substantial deficit in women’s rights persists in every country of the Gulf region and is reflected in practically every facet of their societies, its findings also include the notable progress achieved over the last five years, particularly in terms of economic and political rights

No More Stolen Sisters: The need for a comprehensive response to discrimination and violence against Indigenous women in Canada. Amnesty International; 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.amnesty.ca/research/reports/no-more-stolen-sisters-the-need-f...

‘Families like mine all over Canada are wondering how many more sisters and daughters we have to lose before real government action is taken.’ Darlene Osborne whose relatives, Felicia Solomon and Helen Betty Osborne, were murdered.

Indigenous women in Canada face much higher rates of violence than other women. In a 2004 Canadian government survey, Indigenous women reported rates of violence, including domestic violence and sexual assault, 3.5 times higher than non-Indigenous women. Studies suggest that assaults against Indigenous women are not only more frequent, they are also often particularly brutal. According to another government survey, young First Nations women are five times more likely than other women to die as a result of violence.

In October 2004, Amnesty International released  a report, Stolen Sisters: A Human Rights Response to Discrimination and Violence against Indigenous Women in Canada which documented some of the underlying causes of violence against Indigenous women carried out by both Indigenous and non-Indigenous men. As the report showed, widespread and entrenched racism, poverty and marginalization are critical factors exposing Indigenous women to a heightened risk of violence while denying them adequate protection by police and government services.

Smet M. Sexual Violence Against Women in Armed Conflict - Council of Europe. Council of Europe; 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://assembly.coe.int/nw/xml/XRef/Xref-DocDetails-EN.asp?fileid=12691&...

Sexual violence against women in armed conflict is a crime against humanity, a war crime, and an unacceptable – but, unfortunately, effective – weapon of war. Raping, sexually assaulting and mutilating, forcibly impregnating and infecting with HIV/AIDS the wives, daughters and mothers of the “enemy” not only have terrible physical and psychological effects on the victims themselves, but are capable of disrupting, if not destroying, whole communities.

It has taken centuries for sexual violence against women in armed conflict to be outlawed. It was not until 2008 that the international community, via United Nations Security Council Resolution 1820 on women, peace and security, recognised that rape and other forms of sexual violence can constitute a war crime, a crime against humanity, and a constitutive act with respect to genocide.

However, sexual violence against women in armed conflict is unfortunately still common – it was a constitutive feature of the Balkan wars little more than a decade ago. Today, the main victims of this crime are found in the Democratic Republic of Congo (especially in Kivu) and in Sudan (especially in Darfur). To this day, thousands of victims are denied access to justice, reparation and redress. The lives of the victims remain blighted in many ways while the perpetrators enjoy almost complete impunity for their crimes.

Breaking the Silence, Seeking Justice in Intimate Partner Violence in the Philippines. Women Working Together to Stop Violence against Women; 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.amnesty.org.ph/reports/

Violence against women (VAW), in its various forms – physical, psychological and sexual – continues to be pervasive in the Philippines. Violence against women by State actors was highlighted at the time of martial rule when detained women suffered sexual abuse, torture and other ill-treatment. The human rights issue was largely viewed as State violence, and minimal attention was given to VAW by non-State actors or private individuals, particularly in inter-relational contexts. 

Basu A. Harmful practices against women in India: An examination of selected legislative responses. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: United Nations Economic Commission for Africa; 2009. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/vaw/v-egms-gplahpaw.htm#expert

"Harmful practices against women in India: An examination of selected legislative responses"

Violence against women, of which harmful practices against women is a part, has been acknowledged as “one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men” equality rights. Women face violence due to their position of inequality; their vulnerability to violence being exacerbated due to their positions of dependency as well as prevailing patriarchal attitudes. The Indian Constitution guarantees women equality before the law and the equal protection of laws under Article 14 and prohibits discrimination on grounds of sex under Article 15. A unique feature of the Indian Constitution is Article 15(3), which empowers the State to take special measures for women and children. Despite these guarantees, the position of women in India remains unequal.

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