Children

Working Paper
Early Marriages in Middle East and North Africa. Initiative on VAW, Carr Center, Harvard Kennedy School; Working Paper.Abstract

"Child marriage remains a widely ignored violation of the health and development rights of girls and young women” (IPPF, 2006). Many reasons are given by parents and guardians to justify child marriage.  Economic reasons often underpin these decisions which are directly linked to poverty and the lack of economic opportunities for girls in rural areas. Girls are either seen as an economic burden or valued as capital for their exchange value in terms of goods, money or livestock. A combination of cultural, traditional, and religious arguments are examples utilized to justify child marriage. The fear and stigma attached to premarital sex and bearing children outside marriage, and the associated family “honor,” are often seen as valid reasons for the actions that families take. Finally, many parents tend to curtail the education of their girls and marry them off, due to fear of the high level of sexual violence and abuse encountered en route to, and even at, school.

earlymarriagemiddleeastnafrica.pdf
Lessons learned from Grassroots Organizations in Kenya and Zimbabwe . Initiative on VAW, Carr Center for Human Rights; Working Paper.Abstract

This presentation analyzes case studies from Kenya and Zimbabwe to determine the effectiveness of the Maputo Protocol on a state level. 

ppt_presentation_vaw_briefing_-_tanya_sukhija_28229.pptx
2017
Wodon Q, Male C, Nayihouba A, Onagoruwa A, Savadogo A, Yedan A, Edmeades J, Kes A, John N, Murithi L, et al. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Global Synthesis Brief. The Economic Impacts of Child Marriage [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.costsofchildmarriage.org/publication/economic-impacts-child-m...(Costs_of_Child_Marriage_Products7_6_2017)&mc_cid=4f5de93c86&mc_eid=43d63cddf5

 

 

The Economic Impacts of Child Marriage project is a collaborative effort by the International Center for Research on Women (ICRW) and the World Bank, with funding from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Children’s Investment Fund Foundation, and additional support from the Global Partnership for Education.

 

Wodon Q, Savadogo A, Kes A. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Work, Earnings and Household Welfare Brief. The Economic Impacts of Child Marriage [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.costsofchildmarriage.org/publication/economic-impacts-child-m...(Costs_of_Child_Marriage_Products7_6_2017)&mc_cid=4f5de93c86&mc_eid=43d63cddf5

 

The brief summarizes results from an analysis of the impacts of child marriage on women’s work (specifically, labor force participation and type of work held), earnings and productivity and household welfare. It also estimates selected economic costs of these impacts.

 

Wodon Q, Male C, Onagoruwa A, Savadogo A, John N, Petroni S. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Women's Health Brief. The Economic Impacts of Child Marriage [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.costsofchildmarriage.org/publication/economic-impacts-child-m...(Costs_of_Child_Marriage_Products7_6_2017)&mc_cid=4f5de93c86&mc_eid=43d63cddf5

 

This brief summarizes results from an analysis of the impacts of child marriage on a few selected health outcomes, specifically early childbirths, maternal mortality and intimate partner violence. It does not include analyses for other aspects of women’s health that are likely to be affected by child marriage to various extents, such as maternal morbidity, obstetric fistula, female genital mutilation/cutting, sexually-transmitted infections (including HIV and AIDS) and psychological well-being.

Savadogo A, Onagoruwa N, Wodon Q. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Women's Decision Making & Selected Other Impacts Brief. The Economic Impacts of Child Marriage [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.costsofchildmarriage.org/publication/economic-impacts-child-m...(Costs_of_Child_Marriage_Products7_6_2017)&mc_cid=4f5de93c86&mc_eid=43d63cddf5

 

 

This brief summarizes results from an analysis on the impacts of child marriage on women’s decision-making ability within the household, land ownership, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and birth registrations. While these topics are all related to agency, it should be emphasized that they do not together provide a comprehensive measure of agency, which is beyond the scope of this study.

 

Wodon Q, Onagoruwa A, Yedan A, Edmeades J. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Fertility and Population Growth Brief. The Economic Impacts of Child Marriage [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.costsofchildmarriage.org/publication/economic-impacts-child-m...(Costs_of_Child_Marriage_Products7_6_2017)&mc_cid=4f5de93c86&mc_eid=43d63cddf5

 

 

In this brief, we summarize results from an analysis of the impacts of child marriage on fertility and population growth and estimate the economic costs of these impacts.

 

Wodon Q, Nguyen MC, Yedan A, Edmeades J. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Educational Attainment Brief. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.costsofchildmarriage.org/publication/economic-impacts-child-m...(Costs_of_Child_Marriage_Products7_6_2017)&mc_cid=4f5de93c86&mc_eid=43d63cddf5

 

 

In this brief, we summarize results from an analysis of the impacts of child marriage on educational attainment for girls and their children and document the extent to which keeping girls in school could help end child marriage.

 

Onagoruwa A, John N, Wodon Q. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Child Health and Nutrition Brief. The Economic Impacts of Child Marriage [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.costsofchildmarriage.org/publication/economic-impacts-child-m...(Costs_of_Child_Marriage_Products7_6_2017)&mc_cid=4f5de93c86&mc_eid=43d63cddf5

This brief summarizes results from an analysis of the impacts of child marriage on two health outcomes - under-five mortality and stunting - for young children. For the purposes of this brief, we focus on the impact of child marriage through early childbirths, as this is the mechanism through which child health and nutrition outcomes are most directly affected. There is a close correlation between child marriage and early childbirths in most countries - at a global level, six out of seven early childbirths take place within the context of child marriage. The brief does not include analyses for other aspects of child health that may also be affected by child marriage, nor does it consider costs that may be incurred by health systems as a result of poor child health.

Wodon Q, Male C, Nayihouba A, Onagoruwa A, Savadogo A, Yedan A, Edmeades J, Kes A, John N, Murithi L, et al. Economic Impacts of Child Marriage: Global Synthesis Report, in The Economic Impacts of Child Marriage. International Center for Research on Women ; 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.costsofchildmarriage.org/publication/economic-impacts-child-m...(Costs_of_Child_Marriage_Products7_6_2017)&mc_cid=4f5de93c86&mc_eid=43d63cddf5

 

The international community is increasingly aware of the negative impacts of child marriage on a wide range of development outcomes. Ending child marriage is now part of the Sustainable Development Goals. Yet investments to end the practice remain limited across the globe and more could be done. In order to inspire greater commitments towards ending child marriage, this study demonstrates the negative impacts of the practice and their associated economic costs. The study looks at five domains of impacts: (i) fertility and population growth; (ii) health, nutrition, and violence; (iii) educational attainment and learning; (iv) labor force participation and earnings; and (v) participation, decision-making, and investments. Economic costs associated with the impacts are estimated for several of the impacts. When taken together across countries, the costs of child marriage are very high. They suggest that investing to end child marriage is not only the right thing to do, but also makes sense economically. 

 

2014
Adams AE, Greeson MR, Bybee DI, Beeble M, Sullivan CM, Kennedy AC. Beyond deficits: intimate partner violence, maternal parenting, and child behavior over time. American Journal of Community Psychology [Internet]. 2014;54 (1-2) :46-58. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24777256

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

Exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) has negative consequences for children's well-being and behavior. Much of the research on parenting in the context of IPV has focused on whether and how IPV victimization may negatively shape maternal parenting, and how parenting may in turn negatively influence child behavior, resulting in a deficit model of mothering in the context of IPV. However, extant research has yet to untangle the interrelationships among the constructs and test whether the negative effects of IPV on child behavior are indeed attributable to IPV affecting mothers' parenting. The current study employed path analysis to examine the relationships among IPV, mothers' parenting practices, and their children's externalizing behaviors over three waves of data collection among a sample of 160 women with physically abusive partners. Findings indicate that women who reported higher levels of IPV also reported higher levels of behavior problems in their children at the next time point. When parenting practices were examined individually as mediators of the relationship between IPV and child behavior over time, one type of parenting was significant, such that higher IPV led to higher authoritative parenting and lower child behavior problems [corrected]. On the other hand, there was no evidence that higher levels of IPV contributed to more child behavior problems due to maternal parenting. Instead, IPV had a significant cumulative indirect effect on child behavior via the stability of both IPV and behavior over time. Implications for promoting women's and children's well-being in the context of IPV are discussed.

More Than Bruises Are Left Behind. Matla A Bana [Internet]. 2014. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://matlaabana.co.za/our-projects.php

SECONDARY GOAL

To minimise the secondary abuse children suffer when they report abuse against them. This abuse is often worse than the primary abuse, due to a very unsympathetic reporting system. 

PRIMARY GOALS

“Getting conversation going”

To prevent more child abuse from happening by securing more reporting. To mobilise communities to start speaking about child abuse.

To educate communities on what child abuse is, signs and symptoms and how to report it.

To  educate the public and children on reporting, highlight myths and facts of child abuse and to mobilise the community to start reporting.

Eslick N. Violence against Women in Australia and The National Action Plan to Reduce Violence against Women and their Children, in Initiative on VAW, Research Briefing. Carr Center for Human Rights, Harvard Kennedy School of Government ; 2014.Abstract

Violence against Women (VAW) is a pervasive, global human rights violation. This research memo discusses the current state of VAW in Australia, and the Australian Governments proposed National Action Plan (NAP) addressing VAW across Australia’s diverse community. Noting that women’s rights are not fully protected by the Commonwealth and revealing the current appalling statistics around domestic and sexual violence against Australian women, the memo then provides insight on Indigenous women and VAW, followed by a deeper look at NAP. Finally, after a brief look at the recent study tour of Australia by the Special Rapporteur on Violence against Women, Australia’s commitment to addressing VAW is discussed with reference to reporting for CEDAW and UPR. The memo then considers the Special Rapporteur’s study tour in light of the election of a new federal government. It then concludes that if the state shows genuine commitment to its people, and to its obligations under human rights treaties, the onus ultimately rests on it to work with civil society to make use of the human rights mechanisms and seek to honestly and with purpose examine their human rights status and develop and adopt sustainable positive change. 

vaw_in_australia_and_the_national_action_plan_to_reduce_violence_against_women_and_their_children_march_2014.pdf
2013
Romano M. Kiribati Islands. A Situation Analysis of Children, Women and Youth. UNICEF; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Most of the issues affecting children, youth and women can be effectively addressed through the Government’s commitment to the obligations of international conventions such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Government should provide resources to the Kiribati National Advisory Committee on Children (KNACC) and also put in place effective advocacy structures to ensure children and women’s issues are known and mainstreamed into the national development agenda. 

Tam J. Domestic violence categories under fire. South China Morning Post [Internet]. 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1292868/domestic-violence-cat...

The police system for classifying domestic violence cases may be abetting family tragedies rather than preventing them, a women's group says. Association for the Survivors of Women Abuse said yesterday the police categories of "domestic violence" - which warrants urgent follow-up - and "domestic incident" - which doesn't - meant many marginal cases were being ignored.

2012
Rivera EA, Zeoli AM, Sullivan CM. Abused Mothers’ Safety Concerns and Court Mediators’ Custody Recommendations. Journal of Family Violence [Internet]. 2012;27 (4) :321-332. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491813/

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

This study adds to research on family court’s response to custody in the context of intimate partner abuse (IPA). Mediation is often used to assist family court with custody negotiation; however, debate exists in the field regarding its use when IPA exists. The following study examines experiences with court mediation among a sample of victimized mothers who divorced abusive husbands. Mixed-method data were collected from 19 women. Findings demonstrate that abuse is rarely considered in custody recommendations, as most court mediators prefer joint custody. Implications for the ongoing debate, as well as future directions for research, are discussed.

Lonely Servitude: Child Domestic Labor in Morocco. Human Rights Watch; 2012. Publisher's VersionAbstract

https://www.hrw.org/report/2012/11/15/lonely-servitude/child-domestic-la...

This report follows up on our previous work by assessing what progress has been made in eliminating child domestic labor in Morocco since 2005, and what challenges remain. Although no nationwide surveys similar to the 2001 studies are currently available, our 2012 research—including interviews with 20 former child domestic workers in Casablanca and rural sending areas, as well as interviews with nongovernmental organizations, government officials, and other stakeholders—suggests that the number of children working as domestic workers has dropped since 2005, and that fewer girls are working at very young ages. Public education campaigns by the government, NGOs, and United Nations (UN) agencies, together with increased media attention, have raised public awareness regarding child domestic labor and the risks that girls face. “When I first went to Morocco 10 years ago, no one wanted to talk about the issue,” an International Labour Organization (ILO) official said. “Now, child domestic labor is no longer a taboo subject.” Government efforts to increase school enrollment have shown notable success and helped reduce the number of children engaged in child labor.

"I Had To Run Away:" The Imprisonment of Women and Girls for “Moral Crimes” in Afghanistan. Human Rights Watch; 2012. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.hrw.org/reports/2012/03/28/i-had-run-away

This 120-page report is based on 58 interviews conducted in three prisons and three juvenile detention facilities with women and girls accused of “moral crimes.” Almost all girls in juvenile detention in Afghanistan had been arrested for “moral crimes,” while about half of women in Afghan prisons were arrested on these charges. These “crimes” usually involve flight from unlawful forced marriage or domestic violence. Some women and girls have been convicted of zina, sex outside of marriage, after being raped or forced into prostitution.

The fall of the Taliban government in 2001 promised a new era of women’s rights. Significant improvements have occurred in education, maternal mortality, employment, and the role of women in public life and governance. Yet the imprisonment of women and girls for “moral crimes” is just one sign of the difficult present and worrying future faced by Afghan women and girls as the international community moves to decrease substantially its commitments in Afghanistan.

2011
Khalife N. "How Come You Allow Little Girls to Get Married?" - Child Marriage in Yemen. Human Rights Watch; 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract

https://www.hrw.org/report/2011/12/07/how-come-you-allow-little-girls-ge...

The political turmoil that has swept Yemen since early 2011 has overshadowed the plight of child brides such as Reem, as thousands of protesters took to the streets to demand the end of President Ali Abdullah Saleh’s 33-year rule, and security forces responded with excessive and deadly force. But, while the focus of attention both inside and outside of Yemen is understandably the political future of the country, following President Saleh’s agreement in November to cede power before elections in February, child marriages and other discrimination against women and girls in Yemen continue unabated. And while the president’s resignation topped the list of most protestors’ demand, many young demonstrators especially are calling for a wide range of reforms, including measures to guarantee equality between women and men, and an end to child marriage.

Kleinsorge T. Legal protection of children from sexual exploitation: The “Lanzarote Convention” and the One in Five campaign. [Internet]. 2011. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://srsg.violenceagainstchildren.org/knowledge/law_reform

It is estimated that one in five children fall victim to sexual violence – a serious human rights violation the Council of Europe has decided to combat through: 1. legislative harmonization - The Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (Lanzarote Convention) is the most advanced and complete standard in this field 2. awareness-raising and political action – The Council of Europe campaign ONE in FIVE to stop sexual violence against children and its parliamentary dimension aims to raise awareness of the full extent of sexual violence against children in our societies and promote appropriate policies to stop this violence

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