Publications by Year: 2013

Measuring and responding to violence against women in Kiribati - Action on gender inequality as a social determinant of health. World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

As  in  many  places,  gender  inequality  is  prevalent  in  the  Pacific  island  nation  of  Kiribati.  the WHO commission on Social Determinants of Health underlined in 2008 that gender inequality  impacts  health  through  “discriminatory  feeding  patterns,  violence  against  women, lack of decision-making power, and unfair divisions of work, leisure, and possibilities of improving one’s life,” in addition to limiting access to health care services. A significant consequence  of  gender  inequality  is  the  high  level  of  gender-based  violence,  including  sexual, emotional and physical, perpetrated by intimate partners and non-partners. three years  after  the  final  report  of  the  Commission  on  Social  Determinants  of  Health,  WHO  convened  the  World  Conference  on  Social  Determinants  of  Health  in  Rio  de  Janeiro,  Brazil, in october 2011 to review progress on implementing the recommendations of the commission, draw lessons from experiences and catalyse coordinated global action. this paper was developed in the run-up to the world conference as examples of policy action aimed at tackling key determinants of health and reducing health inequities. covering the period between 2008 and 2011, the paper demonstrates that efforts to measure the extent of a problem can raise political awareness and thereby effectively trigger policy responses on key determinants of gender-based violence and, more broadly, health.

Prior to 2008, health policy-makers were unaware of the prevalence of gender-based violence  in  Kiribati,  as  no  nationally  representative  study  on  the  problem  had  ever  been  conducted. with support from the Australian government, the United Nations Population Fund  (UNFPA)  and  the  Secretariat  of  the  Pacific  community  (SPC),  and  drawing  on  the  methodology  of  the  WHO  Multi-country  Study  on  Women’s  Health  and  Domestic  Violence, the kiribati ministry of Internal and social Affairs (MISA) conducted its first family health and support study in 2008. A committee of stakeholders was assembled to guide the research, support its planning and implementation, and provide a longitudinal sense of buy-in and ownership.

Romano M. Kiribati Islands. A Situation Analysis of Children, Women and Youth. UNICEF; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Most of the issues affecting children, youth and women can be effectively addressed through the Government’s commitment to the obligations of international conventions such as the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Elimination of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). Government should provide resources to the Kiribati National Advisory Committee on Children (KNACC) and also put in place effective advocacy structures to ensure children and women’s issues are known and mainstreamed into the national development agenda. 

Sri V. Voices from the Frontline: Addressing Forced Marriage Within the United States. [Internet]. 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This study aims to contribute to the paucity of information that exists on forced marriage within the United States by presenting findings from a multi-method research study that includes an analysis of the following: 1) 524 surveys with students, domestic violence professionals and refugee service providers; 2) 52 case reviews of suspected and confirmed cases of forced marriage; and, 3) 22 interviews with frontline responders. This study is among a handful of studies within the United States that aim to provide information on the responses, remedies, and protections that are available for victims of forced marriage. This paper is the first to present findings from a group of college students on forced marriage, and the forms of abuse they have witnessed as a result of forced marriage; simultaneously this is also one of the first studies that presents findings from case reviews for 52 reported and suspected cases of forced marriage. Further this paper documents the experiences and recommendations of frontline responders, scholars, activists, and survivors for improving responses to forced marriage. Overall our findings are sobering and highlight the numerous challenges victims, their support networks, and direct service providers face in seeking remedies, protection, and adequate responses against forced marriage.

Declaration of Indigenous Women of CSW57. United Nations - Commission on the Status of Women; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Indigenous women's participation at the 57th Session of the Commission on the Status of Women, 4 to 15 March 2013

A major success at the 57th CSW was the adoption of agreed conclusions on the elimination and prevention of all forms of violence against women and girls on 15 March 2013. The result is due not only to the marvellous work of States but also to the persistence and advice of the more than 600 NGOs gathered at the United Nations, including Indigenous women from around the world. In this regard, “27. The Commission reaffirms that indigenous women often suffer multiple forms of discrimination and poverty which increase their vulnerability to all forms of violence; and stresses the need to seriously address violence against indigenous women and girls.”

Nasar S. Violence against Women, Bleeding Wound in the Syrian Conflict. Euro-Mediterranean Human Rights Network; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Unveiling instances of violence against women (VAW) is one of the most demanding tasks in the Syrian context. Important challenges concerning sexual violence related to both the social cultural context in Syria and methodology of documentation hamper the documentation process. Extensive and sustained efforts are necessary to ensure that these violations will be addressed during the transitional justice period that should follow the end of the armed conflict and that adequate means are deployed in order to provide victims with support, accompaniment and rehabilitation.

This document is a documentation report prepared by Syrian human rights and women’s rights activist Sema Nasar, a member in the Syrian Human Rights Network, with the support of the EMHRN and experts in documentation.

The report is an outcome of an ongoing EMHRN programme aimed at reinforcing networking and capacities of Syrian human rights activists and groups to document and advocate on human rights violations. The process was initiated in 2011, and since then the EMHRN organized consultation meetings, workshops and trainings in documentation for Syrian human rights activists in view of enhancing the documentation efforts carried out by Syrian Human Rights Groups. An integral part of the process is to also to facilitate access of Syrian HR activists to international mechanisms at UN and EU level and to other decision makers in the region .

Adams AE, Bybee DI, Tolman RM, Sullivan CM, Kennedy AC. Does Job Stability Mediate the Relationship Between Intimate Partner Violence and Mental Health Among Low-Income Women?. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry [Internet]. 2013;83 (4) :600-608. Publisher's VersionAbstract

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

Intimate partner violence (IPV) has detrimental consequences for women's mental health. To effectively intervene, it is essential to understand the process through which IPV influences women's mental health. The current study used data from 5 waves of the Women's Employment Study, a prospective study of single mothers receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), to empirically investigate the extent to which job stability mediates the relationship between IPV and adverse mental health outcomes. The findings indicate that IPV significantly negatively affects women's job stability and mental health. Further, job stability is at least partly responsible for the damaging mental health consequences of abuse, and the effects can last up to 3 years after the IPV ends. This study demonstrates the need for interventions that effectively address barriers to employment as a means of enhancing the mental health of low-income women with abusive partners.

Nnawulezi NA, Sullivan CM. Oppression Within Safe Spaces: Exploring Racial Microaggressions Within Domestic Violence Shelters. The Journal of Black Psychology [Internet]. 2013;40 (6) :563-591. Publisher's VersionAbstract

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

Racial microaggressions are often unintentional and subtle forms of racism that manifest in interpersonal communications, behaviors, or environments. The purpose of this study was to explore the presence of racial microaggressions within domestic violence shelters and to understand how women respond to them. Using a phenomenological approach to data collection and analysis, 14 Black women from 3 different shelters were interviewed. Twelve women reported experiencing at least one racial microaggression, although few identified the experience as racist. Additional themes were also examined to understand why women did not identify their experiences of racial microaggressions as racist. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

Herrmannsdorfer C. Balance de la jurisprudencia género sensitiva de Tribunales nacionales en 13 países de América Latina y el Caribe. Centro de Derechos Mujeres; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

El primer documento

Desde el Programa de Litigio del Comité de América Latina y el Caribe para la Defensa de los Derechos de las Mujeres, CLADEM, nos proponemos como objetivo contribuir a promover la ampliación de los marcos interpretativos de la normatividad internacional y nacional en los países de la región, así como la justiciabilidad de los derechos humanos de las mujeres mediante jurisprudencia género-sensitiva obtenida a través del litigio internacional.

Como parte del proyecto ̈Campaña para extender el uso del derechos como instrumento de cambio entre las organizaciones de América Latina y el Caribe Hispano ̈ presentamos este Balance de la jurisprudencia género sensitiva de Tribunales nacionales en 13 países de América Latina y el Caribe. La finalidad del mencionado Proyecto es lograr una mayor incidencia de la sociedad civil en su interlocución con los Estados involucrados, mediante el uso del derecho para la defensa y exigibilidad de los derechos humanos de las mujeres, especialmente en lo referido a la erradicación de la violencia contra la mujer, mayores garantías para sus derechos sexuales y reproductivos y sus derechos económicos, sociales y culturales.

El documento, pretende acercar un balance regional de la jurisprudencia género sensitiva de Tribunales Constitucionales o Altas Cortes para establecer la línea de avance jurisprudencial a nivel nacional durante el período 2008-2012. En ella se releva las sentencias con enfoque de género de Tribunales Constitucionales y de Altas Cortes en 13 países de América Latina y el Caribe en los temas de: discriminación e igualdad, violencia contra la mujer, autonomía sexual y autonomía reproductiva, educación no sexista y antidiscriminatoria.

La selección temática surge del ̈Documento base de la Segunda Campaña de Incidencia para el cumplimiento de las deudas pendientes de los Estados con los Derechos Humanos de las Mujeres ̈1 en el que priorizan 3 temas claves, al que hemos sumado discriminación e igualdad debido a que lo consideramos transversal a los demás. En materia de igualdad para las mujeres es relevante destacar cómo los diferentes casos de violación exponen patrones de discriminación que son estructurales.

Consideramos que este documento puede ser una herramienta de utilidad para las organizaciones de mujeres y activistas que trabajan la temática; así como también alentar a operadores y operadoras de justicia de los países de la región para profundizar en el avance de la jurisprudencia género sensitiva. 

Oidhaco Fact Sheet on Women’s Rights in Colombia. Peace Women; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

In corporation with Colombian civil society organizations, the Oidhaco network has produced a factsheet where data concerning women's rights as well as practical instruments can be found.

Rape Victims as Criminals - Illegal Abortion after Rape in Ecuador. Human Rights Watch; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Ecuadorian law imposes prison terms ranging from one to five years for women and girls who receive abortions. Medical professionals who provide them are subject to harsher penalties. The criminal code provides for only three exceptions to criminal punishment:

  1. in the case of a threat to the life of a pregnant woman, when the danger cannot be averted by other means
  2. in the case of a threat to the health of a pregnant woman, when the danger cannot be averted by other means or 
  3. when the pregnancy is the result of a rape or statutory rape of a woman who is an “idiot or demented.” Ecuador’s laws do not allow other women or girls to seek abortion in the case of rape, this despite the fact that a 2011 nationwide government survey estimated that one out of four Ecuadorian women has been a victim of sexual violence.
Wells M. UN Warns of Rise in Human Trafficking Within Colombia. In Sight Crime; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The problem of internal human trafficking in Colombia is worsening, according to the United Nations (UN) and Colombian officials, highlighting a lack of government attention to the domestic aspect of the trade.

Kalinsko J. Lithuanian Foreign Minister signs Council of Europe's convention on violence against women.; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Lithuania's Foreign Minister Linas Linkevičius has signed the Council of Europe's Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence against Women and Domestic Violence, also known as the Istanbul Convention, which has drawn controversial reactions in the Baltic states.

Violence Against Women Human Rights Defenders: Summary Findings 2012. JASS - Just Associates; 2013 pp. 39. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Thousands of Women Human Rights Defenders (WHRDs) are currently at risk in Mexico and Central America. To address the widespread violence, the Mesoamerican Women Human Rights Defenders Initiative (IM–Defensoras) was formed in 2010 with and for frontline women activists who are facing threats, intimidation, and attacks for defending justice and human rights.

IM–Defensoras currently works with over 300 women defending rights and their organizations to provide activists with the resources and support needed to address security concerns and strengthen and sustain their activism over the long-term.

The network is a key source for data and analysis on violence against WHRDs from a gender perspective, and can rapidly mobilize network members and influential allies for strategic engagement with governments and international human rights organizations. 

Altos niveles de violencia contra la mujer en Latinoamerica y Caribe. Nueva tribuna [Internet]. 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Según la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, los niveles de violencia contra la mujer afectan entre el 17% a 53% de las mujeres en cada país de la región.

El Secretariado Permanente de la Red Latinoamericana y del Caribe para la Democracia (RedLad) alerta sobre los altos niveles de violencia contra la mujer persistentes en América Latina. Según la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, los niveles de violencia contra la mujer afectan de entre 17% a 53% de la población de mujeres en cada país de la región.

Those Who Take Us Away - Abusive Policing and Failures in Protection of Indigenous Women and Girls in Northern British Columbia, Canada. Human Rights Watch; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

The province of British Columbia has been particularly badly affected by violence against indigenous women and girls and by the failure of Canadian law enforcement authorities to deal with the phenomenon. Cutting through the small communities policed by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) in northern BC is the Highway of Tears, a 724-kilometer stretch of road which has become infamous for the dozens of women and girls who have gone missing or been murdered in its vicinity. 

The high rates of violence against indigenous women and girls have drawn widespread expressions of concern from national and international human rights authorities, which have repeatedly called for Canada to address the problem. But these calls for action have not produced sufficient change and indigenous women and girls continue to go missing or be murdered in unacceptably large numbers.

A Life Free of Violence: Unleashing the Power of Women's Empowerment and Gender Equality - UNIFEM Strategy 2008-2013. UNIFEM; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Can be found under the 'View Online' portion of the site

Ending violence against women is at the heart of the mandate of the United Nations Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM). The international community has an unprecedented opportunity to make meaningful progress in tackling this universal human rights violation. Within this context, UNIFEM has developed its Strategy 2008-2013 to end violence against women and girls, an overview of which is presented here. 

Bolivia enfrentará con dura ley la impunidad en los crímenes contra mujeres. La República EC [Internet]. 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

La Paz, 15 feb (EFE).- Bolivia ha asumido el reto de frenar la hasta ahora reinante impunidad en los crímenes contra las mujeres con una ley que castigará con dureza la violencia machista, tras el asesinato esta semana de una periodista a manos de su esposo policía.

Factsheet: Violence Against Women. European Court of Human Rights [Internet]. 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract{"fulltext":["factsheet: Violence against women"],"subcategory":["factsheets"]}

Document summaries the court’s case law in relation to domestic violence, genital mutilations, rape, violence and social exclusion, violence at the hands of state authorities and violence in public places.

12 cases dealing with domestic violence refer to the violation of different articles of the European Convention of human rights, namely of the article 2 on the right to life, article 13 on the right to an effective remedy, article 8 on the right to respect for family life, prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment and article 14 on prohibition of discrimination. Both cases relating genital mutilation against Austria and Ireland were declared inadmissible for the reasons of insufficient protection of the young Nigerian girls that should be provided by their parents. 5 cases dealing with rape reaffirmed the violation of articles 3 on the prohibition of inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, article 8 and artcile 13 mentioned above. The case of violence and social exclusion confirmed violation of the article 3 whereas the violence at the hands of state authorities brought forward violation of the article 3, artcile 14 and article 11 on freedom of assembly. The last case presented in the factsheet deals with the violence in public places giving declaring the violation of the article 3 and article 8.

McInturff K. The Gap in the Gender Gap: Violence Against Women in Canada. Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This study finds that progress on ending violence against women in Canada is stalled by the absence of a coherent national policy and consistent information about the levels of that violence. The study estimates the combined cost of adult sexual assault and intimate partner violence in Canada, and also makes several recommendations on how to improve the situation. 

Solnit R. Hate Crimes: A Rape Every Minute, a Thousand Corpses Every Year. Tom Dispatch; 2013. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Here in the United States, where there is a reported rape every 6.2 minutes, and one in five women will be raped in her lifetime, the rape and gruesome murder of a young woman on a bus in New Delhi on December 16th was treated as an exceptional incident. The story of the alleged rape of an unconscious teenager by members of the Steubenville High School football team was still unfolding, and gang rapes aren’t that unusual here either. Take your pick: some of the 20 men who gang-raped an 11-year-old in Cleveland, Texas, were sentenced in November, while the instigator of the gang rape of a 16-year-old in Richmond, California, was sentenced in October, and four men who gang-raped a 15-year-old near New Orleans were sentenced in April, though the six men who gang-raped a 14-year-old in Chicago last fall are still at large.  Not that I actually went out looking for incidents: they’re everywhere in the news, though no one adds them up and indicates that there might actually be a pattern.