Publications by Author: Almeida, David M

DePasquale N, Davis KD, Zarit SH, Moen P, Hammer LB, Almeida DM. Combining Formal and Informal Caregiving Roles: The Psychosocial Implications of Double- and Triple-Duty Care. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences [Internet]. 2014. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Objectives. Women who combine formal and informal caregiving roles represent a unique, understudied population. In the literature, healthcare employees who simultaneously provide unpaid elder care at home have been referred to as double-duty caregivers. The present study broadens this perspective by examining the psychosocial implications of double-duty child care (child care only), double-duty elder care (elder care only), and triple-duty care (both child care and elder care or “sandwiched” care).

Method. Drawing from the Work, Family, and Health Study, we focus on a large sample of women working in nursing homes in the United States (n = 1,399). We use multiple regression analysis and analysis of covariance tests to examine a range of psychosocial implications associated with double- and triple-duty care.

Results. Compared with nonfamily caregivers, double-duty child caregivers indicated greater family-to-work conflict and poorer partner relationship quality. Double-duty elder caregivers reported more family-to-work conflict, perceived stress, and psychological distress, whereas triple-duty caregivers indicated poorer psychosocial functioning overall.

Discussion. Relative to their counterparts without family caregiving roles, women with combined caregiving roles reported poorer psychosocial well-being. Additional research on women with combined caregiving roles, especially triple-duty caregivers, should be a priority amidst an aging population, older workforce, and growing number of working caregivers.

Liu SY, Rovine MK, Klein LC, Almeida DM. Synchrony of diurnal cortisol pattern in couples. Journal of Family Psychology [Internet]. 2013;27 (4) :579-588. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Cortisol is a biomarker of stress reactivity, and its diurnal pattern is an indicator of general neuroendocrine health. Despite theories conceptualizing marital dyads as dynamic systems wherein spouses are interdependent in their physiology and stress coping, little is known about the daily processes in which spouses possibly influence each other in biological stress. Nineteen heterosexual couples provided saliva samples containing cortisol 4 times a day for 4 consecutive days. We used multilevel modeling to examine whether one’s cortisol awaking response (CAR) and diurnal cortisol slope (DCS) predict those of the spouse’s on the same day and/or on the next day. We found that spouses synchronize their DCS, such that on days when one experiences faster or slower decline in diurnal cortisol than usual, the spouse also experiences faster or slower decline than usual. For CAR, positive synchrony was only observed in couples reporting high levels of marital strain and disagreement. Cross-lagged regression analysis reveals stability in diurnal cortisol pattern. A steeper cortisol slope on a particular day predicts a steeper slope on the next day within an individual, but no significant cross-lagged relation was found between spouses. Couples reporting more spousal support tend to have stronger stability in CAR. These findings provide evidence that spouses are interdependent in their diurnal cortisol patterns on a day-to-day basis, and that these daily dynamics are associated with marital relationship quality. The study contributes to our understanding of marital processes and biobehavioral health. It also contributes methodologically to the advancement of longitudinal dyadic analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)

Bray JW, Kelly EL, Hammer LB, Almeida DM, Dearing JW, King RB, Buxton OM. An integrative, multilevel, and transdisciplinary research approach to challenges of work, family, and health. RTI Press. 2013;March.
Almeida DM, Davis KD, O'Neill JW, Crouter AC. Translational research on work and family: Daily stress processes in hotel employees and their families. In: Research for the Public Good: Applying the methods of translational research to improve human health and well-being. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association ; 2012. pp. 127-146. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Translational science calls on researchers to transform scientific discoveries into practical real-life applications. This chapter describes how we have been attempting to translate our research on work and family stressors to better understand and enhance the daily lives of hotel employees and their families. The Hotel Work and Well-Being Study involves the collaboration between an interdisciplinary team of investigators and hotel industry leaders, and hotel employees and their families. A major feature of this enterprise has been the application of the results from innovative methods of daily stress research to the specific concerns of hotel employees and stakeholders with regard to work–family conflict. The project has evolved through stages that exemplify important features of translational science. These stages include establishing close collaborations and dynamic feedback with important stakeholders, using the information obtained to design a study of daily stress and health specific to the hotel industry, disseminating findings to the industry stakeholders, and adapting knowledge gained in the process to evaluate a workplace program to alleviate the effects of work–family conflict on workers and their family members. This chapter uses examples of these activities to highlight multiple forms of translation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)

McHale SM, Blocklin MK, Walter KN, Davis KD, Almeida DM, Klein LC. The role of daily activities in youths' stress physiology. J Adolesc Health. 2012;51 (6) :623-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: This study examined links between diurnal patterns of the stress hormone cortisol and time spent by adolescents in nine common daily activities. METHODS: During eight consecutive nightly telephone interviews, 28 youths (n = 12 girls), 10-18 years of age, reported their daily activities. On 4 days, four saliva samples were also collected and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models assessed within- and between-person associations between time in each activity and cortisol area under the curve (AUC), cortisol awakening response (CAR), morning peak (30 minutes after wake up), and daily decline (morning peak to bedtime). RESULTS: Links with AUC were found for most activities; significant associations with cortisol rhythms suggested that most effects were due to anticipation of the day's activities. Specifically, on days when youths spent more time than usual on video games and television, they had lower AUCs, with lower morning peaks. Youths who spent more time reading (within-person) and in computer-related activities (between-person) had higher AUCs, with stronger CARs (within-person). Youths who slept more had lower AUCs, with lower morning peaks on both the between- and within-person levels. Amounts of time spent in clubs, and for older adolescents in sports, were also linked to lower AUCs. Finally, youths who spent more time in school/schoolwork had lower average AUCs, but on days when youths spent more time than usual in school, they had higher AUCs, stronger CARs, and steeper daily declines. CONCLUSION: Beyond their known implications for psychological adjustment, youths' everyday activities are linked to stress physiology.
Almeida DM, Davis KD. Workplace flexibility and daily stress processes in hotel employees and their children. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science [Internet]. 2011;638 :123-140. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This research aims to understand the consequences of inadequate workplace flexibility through the lens of daily stress processes. Using a sample of hourly paid hotel employees with children ages 10 to 18 who participated in a daily diary study, the authors compared workers with low and high flexibility on stressor exposure, reactivity, and transmission. The findings showed a consistent pattern of hourly workers with low flexibility having greater exposure to work stressors in general and to workplace arguments in particular. Workers with low flexibility were also more emotionally and physically reactive to work stressors. There was some evidence of stressor transmission to children when parents had low flexibility. Increasing workplace flexibility could serve as a protective factor in exposure and reactivity to stressors experienced in daily life.

O'Neill JW, Harrison MM, Cleveland JN, Almeida DM, Stawski R, Crouter AC. Work–family climate, organizational commitment, and turnover: Multilevel contagion effects of leaders. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2009;74 (1) :18 - 29. Publisher's VersionAbstract

This paper presents empirical research analyzing the relationship between work–family climate (operationalized in terms of three work–family climate sub-scales), organizational leadership (i.e., senior manager) characteristics, organizational commitment and turnover intent among 526 employees from 37 different hotels across the US. Using multilevel modeling, we found significant associations between work–family climate, and both organizational commitment and turnover intent, both within and between hotels. Findings underscored the importance of managerial support for employee work–family balance, the relevance of senior managers’ own work–family circumstances in relation to employees’ work outcomes, and the existence of possible contagion effects of leaders in relation to work–family climate.