JCWS Style Guide

Acronyms & Abbreviations

AAN, Archiwum Akt Nowych, 5/4

AAUW, American Association of University Women, 7/2

ABM, antiballistic missile, 3/3

ABV, Allgemeine Bibellehr-Vereinigung, 5/2

ACC, Allied Control Commission, 7/1

ACDA, Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, 7/3

ADRK, Arkhiv Donets’koho (straikovoho) robitnichoho komitetu, 5/4

AdSD, Archiv der Sozialen Demokratie, 5/2

ADUOPR, Archiwum Delegatury Urz;e,du Ochrony Pa;nastwa w Rzeszowie, 5/4

AEC, Atomic Energy Commission, 3/3

AFCENT, Allied Forces, Central Europe, 6/1

AFP, Alliance for Progress, 6/2

AGF, Arkhiv Gorbachev-Fonda,  5/4

AIOC, Anglo-Iranian Oil Consortium/Company [?], 1/1

AKRK, Arkhiv Krasnodons’koho robitnichoho komitetu, 5/4

ALP, Albanian Labor Party, 1/1

AMRE-B, Brazilian Foreign Ministry Archives, (Arquivo do Minist;eario das Rela;c,ðes Exteriores), [the _ should be an edh] 6/2

AMVR, Arkhiv Ministerstva na Vunshnite raboti, Sofia

ANF, Atlantic Nuclear Force, 6/1

ANI, Intelligence and Information Department (Abteilung Nachrichten und Information), 5/2

ANM, Armenian National Movement, 3/2

APRF, Arkhiv Prezidenta Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 5/4

Arch. KC PZPR, Archiwum Komitetu Centralnego Polskiej Zjednoczonej Partii Rabotniczej, 5/4

Arch. OUP, Archiwum Urz;a,du OchronyPa;nastwa, 5/4

ASALA, Armenian Secret Army for the Liberation of Armenia, 4/3

ASAT, anti-satellite, 4/4

ASKI, Archives of Contemporary Social History, Athens, 3/3

AVPRF, Arkhiv Vneshnei Politiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 8/1

AWAC, Airborne Warning and Control System, 8/2

BAOR, British Army on the Rhine, 6/1

BDJ, League of German Youth, 5/2

BIB, Board for International Broadcasting, 4/1

BKP, Bulgarska Komunisticheska Partiya—Bulgarian Communist Party, 1/1

BMA-F, Bundesarchiv-Militärarchiv, Freiburg, 7/1

BMEWS, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, 3/3

BND, [West German foreign intelligence service], 4/3

BStU, Der Bundesbeauftragte für die Unterlagen des Staatssicherheitsdienstes der ehemaligen Deutschen Demokratischen Republik [Stasi archive]

CAP, Common Agricultural Policy, 2/3

CAT, Conventional Arms Transfer [talks], 8/2

CAW, Centralne Archiwum Wojskowe, 5/4

CC, Central Committee, 1/1

CCF, Congress for Cultural Freedom, 5/2

CCF, Committee for Cultural Freedom, 5/2

CCP, Chinese Communist Party, 3/2

CCRAK, Combined Command Reconnaissance Activities, Korea, 3/3

CDU, Christian Democratic Union [W.Germany], 5/2

CEEC, Committee for European Economic Cooperation, 8/1

CFE, Conventional Forces in Europe, 4/2

CFM, Council of Foreign Ministers, 7/1

CGT, Conf;eaderation G;ean;earale du Travail, 6/1

ch., chs., 3/1

CIA, Central Intelligence Agency, 1/1

CIAA, Coordinator of Inter-American Affairs, 4/4

CINC, commander in chief, 8/2

CINCPAC, Commander in Chief, U.S. Pacific Command, 6/1

CJTFs, Combined Joint Task Forces, 5/2

CLN, National Liberation Committee [Italy], also Northern CLN, 3/2

CMEA, Council for Mutual Economic Assistance, 1/1

COINTELPRO, Counter Intelligence Program [FBI], 7/2

Cong., Congress, 3/2

CORE, Congress on Racial Equality, 4/4

CPA, Communist Party of Australia, 9/1

CPGB, Communist Party of Great Britain, 9/1

CPLP, (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa) 8/4

CPPCC, Chinese People’s Consultative Conference (PCC before 1949), 3/2

CPSU, Soviet Communist Party, 1/1

CPUSA, Communist Party of the USA, 5/2

CPV, Chinese People’s Volunteers, 8/3

CPY, Communist Party of Yugoslavia, 6/1

CR, Cultural Revolution, 4/2

CSCE, Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, 4/2

CSIS, Canadian Security Intelligence Service, 4/3

CUF, Companhia União Fabril, 8/4

CWIHP, Cold War International History Project, 1/1

DBD, Demokratische Bauernpartei Deutschlands, 6/2

DC, Christian Democrats [Italy], 3/2

DD/P, Directorate of Plans [CIA], 7/4

DE, damage expectancy, 7/3

DGPN, Direction G;ean;earale de la Police Nationale [Directorate General for the National Police, France], 4/3

DGSE, Direction G;ean;earale de la S;eacurit;ea Ext;earieure [French foreign intelligence service], 4/3

DDRS, Declassified Documents Reference System, 4/2

DGZ, Desired Ground Zero, 7/3

DEW, Defense Early Warning, 3/3

DoD, Department of Defense, 3/3

DPRK, North Korea, 3/1

DRE, Directorio Revolucionario Estudiantil (Student Revolutionary Directorate) [Cuba], 7/1

DRV, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, 3/3

DS, State Security [Bulgaria], 5/4

DSE, Democratic Army of Greece, 3/3

DST, Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire [internal security service, France], 4/3

DVdI, German Central Administration of the Interior (Deutsche Verwaltung des Innern), 5/2

EAC, European Advisory Commission, 4/2

EAK [Evreiskii Antifashistskii Komitet], 4/1

EAM, emergency action message, 7/3

EAM, National Liberation Front [Greece], 3/3

ECA, Economic Cooperation Administration, 8/1

ECSC, European Coal and Steel Community, 4/2

EDC, European Defense Community, 4/2

EDES, National Republican Greek League, 7/3

EEC, European Economic Community, 2/3

EFTA, European Free Trade Area, 2/3

ELAS, National People’s Liberation Army [Greece, 3/3]

ENI, ItalianState Oil Industry, 4/3

ERP, European Recovery Program, 4/3

ESDI, European Security and Defense Initiative, 5/2

EU, European Union

EUCOM, European Command [U.S. military], 8/2

EURATOM, European Atomic Energy Agency, 2/3

et al.

FAd’H, Forces Armeés d’Haïti, 3/1

FARL, Fractions Arm;eaes R;eavolutionnaires Libanaises, 4/3

FAS, Federation of American Scientists, 5/1

FCDA, Federal Civil Defense Administration, 4/2

FDJ, Freie Deutsche Jungend—SED youth organization, 1/1

FDP, Free Democratic Party (W. Germany), 5/2

FNLA, National Front for the Liberation of Angola, 8/2

FNSEA, Fédération Nationale des Syndicats d’Exploitants Agricoles, 2/3

FOA, Foreign Operations Administration, 8/1

FRG, FederalRepublic of Germany [West Germany], 1/1

FPM, Frontul Popular din Moldova (Popular Front of Moldova), 5/4

FSLN, Frente Sandinista de Liberación Nacional, 8/4

FTA, free trade area, 2/3

GARF, Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 7/1

GATT, General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, 2/3

GCHQ, U.K. Government Communications Headquarters, 4/3

Gd’H, Garde d’Haïti, 3/1

GDR, German Democratic Republic [East Germany], 1/1

GKChP, State Committee for the State of Emergency, 5/1

GKO, State Committee for Defense [USSR], 4/4

GLCM, ground-launched cruise missile, 4/4

GNP, gross national product, 1/1

GNR, government of national reconciliation, 8/4

GRU, Main Intelligence Directorate of the Soviet General Staff, 5/4

GSOVG, Group of Soviet Occupation Forces [East Germany], 1/1

GSP, General Strike Plan, 7/3

HICOG, U.S. High Commissioner for Germany, 5/1

HPCWS, Harvard Project on Cold War Studies, the Harvard project, 1/1

HSWP, Hungarian Socialist Workers’ Party, 5/2

HUAC, House Un-American Activities Committee, 4/1

IB, Intelligence Bureau [India], 2/3

Ibid., ibid. [no ital; change in style per MK, 11/10/03]

ICC, International Control Commission [set up to monitor 1954 Geneva Accords], 5/2

ICBM, intercontinental ballistic missile, 3/3

IEMSS, Institute of the Economy of the World Socialist System, 7/2

IHFHR, International Helsinki Federation for Human Rights, 7/2

IMEMO, Institute of World Economy and International Relations [USSR], 4/4

INF, intermediate range nuclear force, 4/3

IPN, Instytut Pami;e,ci Narodowej (Institute of National Remembrance) 8/3

IPPNW, International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

IR, international relations, 1/1

IRBM, intermediate range ballistic missile

IRD, Information Research Department [UK], 2/3

ISKRAN, Institute for the U.S. and Canadian Studies [USSR], 7/2

JAC, Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee, 6/3

JACK, Joint Advisory Commission Korea, 3/3

JAEIC, U.S. Joint Atomic Energy Intelligence Committee, 7/3

JCS, Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1/1

JSTPS, Joint Strategic Target Planning Staff, 7/3

KGB, Soviet Committee on State Security, 1/1

KgU, Fighting Group Against Inhumanity, 5/3

KKE, Greek Communist Party, 3/3

KLO, Korean Liaison Office, 3/3

KMT, Kuomintang, 3/2

KPD, Communist Party of Germany (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands), 4/2

KS;Cv, Komunistická strana ;Cveskoslovenska—Czechoslovak Communist Party, 1/1

KVP, Kasernierte Volkspolizei—paramilitary troops, 1/1

KWP, Korean Workers’ Party, 3/1

LCC, LaunchControlCenter, 3/3

LDPD, Liberal Democratic Party of Germany, 5/2

LGU, LeningradStateUniversity, 4/1

LiCP, Lithuanian Communist Party, 5/4

LOPM, Leitende Organe der Parteien und der Massenorganisationen, 5/3

LTBT, Limited Test Ban Treaty, 8/2

LVA, Latvijas Valsts Arh;i-vs, 5/4

LVOA, Lietuvos Visuomenes Organizaciju Archyvas, 5/4

LWV, League of Women Voters, 7/2

LYA, Lietuvos Ypatingasis Archyvas, 5/4

MAD, mutual assured destruction, 4/4

MAKNA, Mongol Ardyn Khuvsgalt Namyn Arkhiv, 8/1

MBFR, mutual and balanced force reductions, 4/2

MDP, Magyar Dolgozók Pártja—Hungarian Workers’ Party, 1/1

MEDO, Middle East Defence Organisation, 4/3

MGB, Soviet Ministry of State Security, 5/2

MGU, MoscowStateUniversity, 4/1

MI5, British Security Service, 4/3

MI6, British Secret Intelligence Service, 4/3

MIRV, multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles, 7/3

MLF, Multilateral Force, 2/3

MLNF, multilateral nuclear force, 6/1

MOMA, Museum of Modern Art, 3/3

MPAJA, Malayan Peoples’ Anti-Japanese Army, 9/1

MPLA, Movement for the Liberation of Angola, 8/2

MPRP, Mongolian People’s Revolutionary Party, 8/1

MSA, Mutual Security Agency, 8/1

MSI, Movimento Sociale Italiano, 4/3

MSS, Ministry of State Security, 3/3

MSW, Ministry of Internal Affairs [Poland], 5/4

MV, Ministry of Interior (Ministerstva vnitra) [Czech Republic], 9/1

MVD, Soviet Internal Affairs Ministry, 3/2

n., nn. (footnote/s)

NA, National Archives and Records Administration

NAACP, National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, 4/4

NAP, nonaggression pact, 6/1

NATO, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 1/1

NCFE, National Committee for a Free Europe, 3/3

NCW, National Council of Women, 7/2

n.d. (for no date in a source)

NDAC, Nuclear Defense Affairs Committee [NATO], 6/1

NDP, National Defense Party [Iceland], 6/4

NDPD, National Democratic Party of Germany, 5/2

NFBPWC, National Federation of Business and Professional Women’s Clubs, 7/2

NEACC, Near East Arms Coordinating Committee, 4/3

NEACP, National Emergency Airborne Command Post, 7/3

NEP, New Economic Plan, 1/1

NGA, National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency [formerly NIMA], 6/2

NIE, National Intelligence Estimate, 3/3

NKAO, Nakorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast, 3/2

NIMA, National Imagery and Mapping Agency [became NGA in 2003], 6/2

NIOC, National Iranian Oil Company, 7/3

NKVD, People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs, 5/1

NLF, National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam, 3/3

NMCC, NationalMilitaryCommandCenter, 7/3

NPC, National People’s Congress [China], 3/2

NPG, Nuclear Planning Group, 6/1

NPIC, National Photographic InterpretationCenter, 5/2

NPT, nuclear non-proliferation treaty, 6/1

NORAD, North American Aerospace Defense Command, 4/4

NRO, National Reconnaissance Office, 6/2

NSA, National Security Administration

NSArchive, National Security Archive, 8/2

NSAM, National Security Action Memorandum, 6/1

NSC, National Security Council, 1/1

NSDAP, National Socialist German Workers’ Party, 4/3

NSDD, National Security Decision Directive, 4/4

NSSM, National Security Study Memorandum, 7/3

NSTAP, National Strategic Targeting and Attack Policy, 7/3

NSTL, National Strategic Target List, 7/3

NUWEP, Nuclear Weapons Employment Policy, 7/3

NVDA, National Volunteer Defense Army [Tibet], 2/3

OAS, Organization of Andean States, 8/4

OBZ, Military Defense Intelligence Agency (Vojenské obranné zpravodajství), 9/1

OCB, Operations Coordinating Board, 4/2

OECD, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [was OEEC], 4/3

OEEC, Organization for European Economic Cooperation [became OECD], 4/3

OKW, German High Command [WW II], 4/1

OPC, Office of Policy Coordination, 3/3

OSP, U.S. Overseas Procurement, 4.3

OSS, Office of Strategic Services, 4/4

OSTK, United Council of Work Collectives [Slavic Transnistrian org.], 5/4

PACOM, Pacific Command [U.S. military], 8/2

PA/AA, Politisches Archiv des Auswärtigen Amtes [Berlin], 7/4

PAIGC, Partido Africano de Independência da Guiné e do Cabo Verde, 8/4

PCI, Italian Communist Party, 3/2

PCC, Partito Comunista Combattente, 4/3

PCC, Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC after 1949) [China], 3/2

PCC, Political Consultative Committee [Warsaw Pact], 7/1

PCF, Parti Communiste Fran;c,ais French Communist Party, 3/2

PCG, Planning Coordination Group [USA], 4/4

PfP, Partnership for Peace, 4/2

PHP, Parallel History Project on NATO and the Warsaw Pact, 4/2

PKI, Indonesian Communist Party, 6/3

PLA, People’s Liberation Army [China], 2/3

PMFTU, Pan-Malayan Federation of Trade Unions, 9/1

PPS, Policy Planning Staff, 4/2

PR&DC, Polar Research and Development Corps, 3/3

PRK, People’s Republic of Kampuchea, 3/1

PRO, Public Records Office [London, UK], 2/3

PRRI, Permesta rebellion [Indonesia], 3/1

PS, Parti Socialiste, 6/1

PSB, Psychological Strategy Board, 4/2

PSDI, Social Democratic Party [Italy], 4/3

PSI, Italian Socialist Party, 4/2

PTB, Partido Trabalhista Brasileiro [Brazillian Workers Party], 6/2

PUWP, Polish United Workers’ Party, 5/2

PZPR, Partia Zjednoczona Partia Robotnicza, Polish United Workers’ Party, 4/4 [note: PUWP and PZPR refer to same party]

QMV, qualified majority voting, 2/3

RCMP, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, 4/3

RCSC, Representative Conference of all Social Circles [China], 3/2

RDJTF, Rapid Deployment Joint Task Force, 8/2

RFE, Radio Free Europe, 4/1

RGANI, Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Noveishei Istorii, 5/4

RGASPI, Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Sotsial’no-Politicheskoi Istorii, 4/2

RL, Radio Liberty, 4/1

ROK, South Korea, 6/1

RO/RO, roll-on/roll-off [ship], 8/2

RSFSR, Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic, 5/4

SAC, Strategic Air Command, 3/3

SACEUR, Supreme Allied Command, Europe, 4/2

SADS, Soviet-American Disarmament Study group, 3/3

SALT, Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, 4/4

SAPMO-BA, Stiftung Archiv der Parteien und Massenorganisationen der DDR im Bundesarchiv, 5/4

SARP, Strategic Aircrew Recovery Program, 9/1

SB, Security Service [Poland], 5/4

SBZ, Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany, 4/1

SCSA, Sak’art’velos C’entraluri Saxelmcip’o Ark’ivi, 6/4

SDI, Strategic Defense Initiative, 4/4

SEAGA, Selective Employment of Air and Ground Alert, 7/3

SED, Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands—Socialist Unity Party [East Germany], 1/1

sess., session, 3/2

SF, Special Forces, 4/4

SFG, Special Forces Group, 4/4

SHAPE, Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Powers in Europe, 4/2

SIGINT, signals intelligence, 4/1

SIL, Society for Individual Liberty, 5/;2

SIOP, Single Integrated Operational Plan, 7/3

SIS, Secret Intelligence Service [UK], 2/3

Sitsum, Situation Summary, 4/1

SKKG, Soviet Control Commission [Germany], 1/1

SLBM, submarine-launched ballistic missile, 3/3

SOE, Special Operations Executive [UK], 2/3

SPD, Social Democratic Party [W.Ger.], 4/4

SSS, Special Service Staff [U.S. IRS 1969–1973], 7/2

START, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty [“START treaty” is redundant], 3/3

Stasi, Staatssicherheit —State Security Ministry [East Germany], 1/1

StB, State Security (Státní bezpe;cvnost) [Czechoslovakia]

SVAG, Soviet Military Administration in Germany, 5/2

SVKG, Soviet High Commission [Germany], 1/1

SVR, Russian Foreign Intelligence Service, 6/2

SWAPO, South West Africa People’s Organization, 8/2

TADP, Toronto Anti-Draft Program, 5/1

TCC, Temporary Council Committee [NATO], 9/1

TsEMI, Central Economic-Mathematical Institute, 7/2

TUC, Trades Union Council [UK], 4/1

UDF, French Democratic Union, 4/3

UfG, Investigative Committee of Free Jurists, 5/2

UHS, Ukrainian Helsinki Union [later became the Ukrainian Republican Party], 5/4

UK (adj) [use United Kingdom in running text; note lack of periods—change in style per MK, 11/10/03]

UN (adj) [use United Nations in running text; note lack of periods—change in style per MK, 11/10/03]

UNITA, National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, 8/2

UOP, Urz;a,d Ochrony Pa;nastwa [Bureau for Protection of the State; Poland], 5/4

U.S.A. [use United Sates in running text], U.S. (adj)

USCINCEUR, Commander-in-Chief of U.S. Forces, Europe, 4/3

USIA, United States Information Agency, 4/1


UZSI, Czech Intelligence Service (Ústav zahrani;cvních styk;uo a informací), 9/1

VFC, Volunteer Freedom Corps, 4/4

VKP, All-Union Communist Party, 4/1

VKP(b), All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks)

VOP-Ednist’, Vseukrains’ka orhanizatsiya pratsi-“Ednist’,” (All-Ukrainian Labor Organization-“Unity”), 5/4

VOS, Union of Victims of Stalinism, 5/2

VOST, All-Ukrainian Association of Labor Solidarity, 5/4

VPK, Voenno-Promyshlennaya Komissiya—Military-Industrial Commission, 4/4

VWP, Vietnam Workers Party

WEI, Western Enterprises, Inc., 3/1

WEU, Western European Union, 4/4

WFTU, World Federation of Trade Unions, 4/1

WIDF, Women’s International Democratic Federation, 7/2

WOMAN, World Organization of Mothers of All Nations, 7/2

WRL, War Resisters’ League, 3/3

WSEG/IDA, Weapons Systems Evaluation Group/Institute for Defense Analyses, 7/3

YAF, Young Americans for Freedom, 5/2

ZOB II, Land Security Section (Zemsk;ya odbor bezpe;cvností) [Czechoslovak int serv], 9/1

ZS/GS, Military Intelligence of the General Staff (Zpravodajská slu;zvba Generálního ;svtábu) [Czechoslovakia], 9/1

ZUZ, Land Central Intelligence (Zemská ust;rvedná zpravodajska) [formerly ZOB II], 9/1


Names of People

Akhromeev, Sergei, 3/1

Aleksandrov, Anatolii [Soviet scientist], 3/3

Allilueva, Svetlana [Stalin’s daughter], 4/1

Amin, Hafizullah [Afghan leader], 3/3

Anders, W;l-adys;l-aw [Polish general], 8/2

Andropov, Yurii, 4/4

Antall, József [Hungarian PM], 7/1

Artsimovich, Lev [Soviet scientist], 3/3

Ásgeirsson, Ásgeir [Icelandic P], 6/4

Attlee, Clement, 2/3

Badran, Shams [Egyptian M of War], 8/1

Badoglio, Marshal Pietro [led Italian gov. from 1943], 3/2

Baklanov, Oleg, 3/1

Balladur, Edouard [French PM], 4/1

Beirut, Bo;l-es;l-aw [Polish leader], 7/1

Benediktsson, Bjarni [Icelandic PM], 6/4

Bene;sv, Edvard [Czech P], 6/3

Beria, Lavrentii, 3/3

Berlinguer, Enrico [PCI leader], 4/3

Bessmertnykh, Aleksandr [Soviet FM], 3/3

Bib;oa, István, 6/3

Bierut, Bo∏es∏aw [Bo;l-es;l-aw] [Polish Communist leader], 3/2

Bogomolov, Aleksandr [Soviet diplomat], 3/2

Bordiga, Amadeo [PCI leader], 6/2

Brazauskas, Algirdas [head of Lithuanian CP], 5/4

Brezhnev, Leonid, 4/4

Brosio, Manlio [U.N. SG], 6/1

Brzezinski, Zbigniew Kazimierz, 6/1

Bukharin, Nikolai, 4/3

Bulganin, Nikolai [Soviet Premier], 4/4

Bundy, McGeorge, 3/3

Byroade, Henry A. [U.S. Amb. to Viet.], 5/3

Cabral, Amílcar [founder of PAIGC], 8/4

Casas, Senén [Cuban Gen.], 8/2

Ceau`escu [Ceau;s,escu], Nicolae, 3/3

Chen Boda [secretary to Mao]

Chen Yun [Chinese official], 3/2

Chernenko, Konstantin, 4/4

Chernyaev, Anatoli S., 3/1

Chervonenko, Stepan [Soviet amb.], 8/3

Chiang Ching-kuo [Taiwan DM], 6/3

Chiang Kai-shek [aka Jiang Jieshi], 3/3

Cho Man-sik, 3/1

Choi Kyu Ha [Korean P], 3/2

Chun Doo Hwan [Korean general and P], 3/2

Deferre, Gaston, 2/3

De Gasperi, Alcide [Italian leader], 3/2

de Gaulle, Charles, 2/3

de Kauffmann, Henrik [Danish minister], 3/3

Deng Xiaoping [Chinese leader], 3/2

Dientsbier, Ji;rví [Czechoslovak FM], 7/1

Dimitrov, Georgi [head of Comintern], 3/3

Dinnyés, Lajos [Hungarian leader], 7/1

Dixon, Pierson, 2/3

Djilas, Milovan [Yugoslav envoy], 3/2

Dobrynin, Anatolii, 3/1

Dong Biwu [Chinese official], 3/2

Dortic;oas, Osvaldo [Cuban P], 6/3

Dub;cvek, Alexander [Czechoslovak CP leader], 3/3

Dzherzhinskii, Feliks [first Soviet chief of secret police], 5/1

d’Estaing, Valéry Giscard, 2/3

Fanfani, Amintore [Italian DC leader], 4/3

Fawzi, Muhammad [Egyptian general], 8/1

Figl, Leopold [Austrian chancellor], 7/4

Gerasimov, Gennadii [USSR FM spokesman], 4/4

Gheorghiu-Dej, Gheorghe [Romanian leader], 4/1

Gomu;l-ka, W;l-adys;l-aw [Polish Communist leader], 3/2

González, Felipe [Spanish P], 7/2

Goulart, Jo;a~o [Brazilian P], 6/3

Grechko, Andrei [Soviet DM], 8/1

Gribkov, Anatolii [Warsaw Pact chief of staff], 4/2

Grigoriyan, Valerii, 3/2

Gromyko, Andrei [Soviet FM], 3/3

Gronchi, Giovanni [Italian P], 4/2

Gruber, Karl [Austrian leader], 7/4

Guzmán, Jacobo Arbenz [Guatemalan P], 7/4

Hansen, H. C. [Danish PM], 3/3

Hassel, Kai-Uwe von [FRG politician, DM], 6/1

Ho Chi Minh, 3/3

Honecker, Erich [E. German leader], 4/2

Horn, Gyula [Hungarian FM], 7/1

Hoxha, Enver, 4/1

Hu Qiaomu [secretary to Mao]

Iliescu, Ion [Romanian P], 6/2

Ismay, Hastings [NATO SG], 4/2

Ivashutin, Petr [Soviet general], 4/2

Jaruzelski, Wojciech [Polish leader], 4/2

Jebb, Gladwyn [UK ambassador], 4/1

Jeszenszky, Géza [Hungarian FM], 7/1

Jiang Jieshi [Chiang Kai-shek]

Jiang Qing [Mao’s wife], 8/4

Jónasson, Hermann [Icelandic PM], 6/4

Kardelj, Edvard [Yugoslav diplomat], 3/2

Kessler, Heinz [E. German DM], 4/2

Khalidze, Valery, 8/2

Khrushchev, Nikita, 4/2

Khvatov, Gennadii [Soviet admiral], 7/1

Kim Dae-jung [ Korean P], 3/2

Kim Il-Sung, 6/1

Kim Young Sam [Korean P], 3/2

Kiszczak, Czes;l-aw [Polish PM], 5/4

Komárek, Vladimír, 3/1

Kornienko, Georgii, 3/1

Kosygin, Aleksei [Soviet PM], 5/2

Krenz, Egon [GDR leader], 7/2

Kryuchkov, Vladimir, 3/1

Kulikov, Viktor G. [Warsaw Pact commander in chief], 4/2

Kunaev, Dinmukhamed [Kazakh CP first sec]

Kurchatov, Igor [Soviet scientist], 3/3

Landau, Lev [Soviet scientist], 3/3

Landsbergis, Vytautas [Lithuanian P], 5/1

Ligachev, Egor [Politburo member], 3/1

Lin Biao [Chinese DM], 8/4

Lin Boqu [Chinese official], 3/2

Litvinov, Maksim [Soviet official], 4/2

Liu Shaoqi, [Chinese official], 3/2

Longo, Luigi [PCI official], 3/2

Lukyanov, Anatoly [USSR Supreme Sov. chairman], 5/4

Lunacharskii, Anatolii [Soviet M of educ.], 3/2

Maclean, Donald [spy], 3/3

Macmillan, Harold, 2/3

Maiskii, Ivan [Soviet diplomat], 7/3

Malenkov, Georgii [Soviet official], 3/2

Malinovskii, Rodion [Soviet DM], 8/1

Malykh, Vladimir [Soviet scientist], 3/3

Mao Zedong, 3/2

Marjolin, Robert, 2/3

Masaryk, Jan [Czechoslovak FM], 7/1

Masaryk, Tomá;sv [Czechoslovak P], 3/3

Mattei, Enrico [head of ENI], 4/3

Maximos, Dimitrios [Greek PM], 3/3

Mazowiecki, Tadeusz [Solidarity leader; Polish PM], 5/4

McNamara, Robert, 3/3

Meriam, Mengistu Haile, 8/2

Mikhoels, Solomon [murdered Jewish actor and head of JAC], 4/1

Mitterrand, François, 2/3

Molotov, Vyacheslav [Soviet FM], 3/2

Mossadegh, Mohammed [Iranian PM], 7/4

Muradyan, Igor [Armenian founder of Miatsum movement], 3/2

Mutalibov, Ayaz [Azerbaijani P], 3/2

Nagy, Ferenc [Hungarian PM], 7/1

Nazarbaev, Nursultan [Kazakhstan P], 3/2

Nenni, Pietro [ Italian Socialist leader], 3/2

Ngo Dinh Diem [S. Vietnamese leader], 3/3

Nguyen Co Thach [Vietnamese FM]

Nguyen Duy Trinh [N. Viet. FM], 5/2

Nguyen Khac Huynh [Vietnamese diplomat], 3/3

Novotn˘ Antonín [Novotn;ya, Anton;ian] [Czechoslovak dictator], 3/3

Novikov, Nikolai [Soviet Amb to US], 3/2

Paasikivi, Juho [Finnish P], 7/1

Papandreou, Georgios [Greek minister], 3/3

Park Chung Hee [Korean P], 3/2

Peng Dehuai [Chinese military leader], 3/2

Pham Van Dong [N.Viet Premier], 5/2

Podgornyi, Nikolai [Soviet Pres.], 8/1

Polyanichko, Viktor [2d secretary of the Communist Party of Azerbaijan], 3/2

Pompidou, Georges, 2/3

Pugo, Boris [Soviet minister], 5/1

Quwatli, Shukri [Syrian P], 4/3

Rajk, László [Hungarian Communist leader], 8/4

Rákosi, Mátyás [Hungarian Communist leader], 7/1

Rakowski, Mieczys;l-aw [PZPR GS], 5/4

Rao Shushi [Chinese official], 3/2

Reale, Eugenio [PCI’s foreign affairs chief], 3/2

Rodríguez, Carlos Rafael [Cuban VP], 8/2

Rokossovskii, Konstantin [Soviet Marshal in Poland], 7/4

Ryzhkov, Nikolai, 3/1

Sai Fu Ding [Chinese official], 3/2

Sakharov, Andrei, 3/3

Saragat, Giuseppe [head of PSDI], 4/3

Salazar, António [de Oliveira] [Portugese dictator], 8/4

Scelba, Mario [Italian PM], 4/3

Schröder, Gerhard, 2/3

Secchia, Pietro [PCI official], 3/2

Shcharanskii, Anatolii, 8/2

Shakhnazarov, Georgii [advisor to Gorbachev], 3/2

Shaposhnikov, Evgenii [Soviet DM], 5/4

Shcherbyts’kyi, Volodymyr [leader of Ukrainian CP], 5/4

Shevardnadze, Eduard, 3/1

Shevchenko, Valentina [head of Urkainian parliament], 5/4

Shevliyagin, Arkadii [Soviet diplomat], 3/2

Sihanouk, Norodom, 3/3

Sinelnikov, Kirill [Soviet scientist], 3/3

Skubiszewski, Krzysztof [Polish FM], 7/1

Sofulis, Themistoklis [Greek PM], 3/3

Spaak, Paul-Henri [NATO SG], 4/2

Stalin, Josif

Teltschik, Horst [FRG official], 7/2

Ter-Petrosyan, Levon [Armenian P], 3/2

Terracini, Umberto [PCI leader], 3/2

Thant, U, 3/2

Thorez, Maurice [French Communist leader], 3/2

Tikhonov, Nikolai [Soviet PM], 7/2

Tito, Josip Broz, 3/2

Togliatti, Palmiro [leader of PCI], 3/2

Tolbukhin, Fedor [Soviet Marshal], 7/3

Touré, Ahmed Sékou [Guinea-Conakry P], 8/4

Tran Quang Co [S.Viet. diplomat], 3/3

Trevelyan, Humphrey [UK diplomat], 4/1

Trujillo, Rafael, 3/1

Tsaldaris, Konstantinos [Greek PM], 3/3

Tsedenbal, Yumjaagiyn [Mongolian PM], 8/1

Tukhachevsky, Mikhail [Soviet Marshal], 3/2

ul-Haq, Zia [Pakistani dictator], 4/2

Varennikov, Valentin [Soviet general], 5/4

Velikhov, Evgenii [Soviet scientist], 3/3

Vittorio Emanuele III [King of Italy; led coup d’état against Mussolini in 1943], 3/2

Vlasov, Aleksandr [Russian PM], 5/1

Voroshilov, Kliment, 4/4

Vyshinskii, Andrei [Soviet diplomat], 3/2

Wa;l;e,sa, Lech, 7/1

Win, Ne [Burmese leader], 3/3

Wu Lan Fu [Chinese official], 3/2

Yakovlev, Aleksandr, 3/1

Yaroslavskii, Emelyan [head of League of Militant Godless, USSR], 3/2

Yazov, Dmitrii [Soviet DM], 5/4

Yevtushenko, Yevgeny [poet], 4/1

Yuan Zhongxian [Chinese amb.], 8/3

Zachariadis, Nikos [secr. gen. of KKE], 3/3

Zhdanov, Andrei [Soviet official for foreign affairs], 3/2

Zhivkov, Todor [Bulgarian leader], 5/4

Zhou Enlai [Chinese premier], 3/2

Zhu De [Chinese official], 3/2

Zhukov, Georgii [Soviet Marshal], 3/2


Names of Places

Akademgorodok, 4/4

Askeran, 3/2

Babi Yar, 4/1

Belarus, Belarusan [but Belorussia/n when referring to Soviet republic]

Belovezhskaya Pushcha [or Forest] [Belarus], 5/1

Chi;s,in;auu, 5/4

Chukhotsk peninsula, 3/3

Congo Brazzaville [no hyphen; Republic of Congo], 8/2

Dharamsala, 8/3

Dien Bien Phu, 3/3

Erevan, 3/2

Guomindang, 3/2

Krasnoyarsk-26, 3/3

Kurile Islands, 7/2

Kuzbass (KuznetskiiBasin), 5/4

Lachin corridor, 3/2

Nagorno-Karabakh, 3/2

Netherlands, the, 2/3

Northern Tier, 1/1

Oder-Neisse line, 4/1

Phnom Penh, 3/1

Pozna;na [Poland], 8/4

Pridnestrov’e (use Transnistria), 5/4

Pskov [Russia], 3/2

Pyongyang, 3/1

Stepanakert, 3/2

subcontinent [e.g., Indian subcontinent]

Sumgait, 3/2

Tbilisi, 4/1

Tehran, 7/3

Transcaucasus, 3/2

Transnistria (Pridnestrov’e in Russian), 5/4

Trieste, 3/2

United Kingdom (n), U.K. (adj), 1/1

United Nations (n), U.N. (adj), 1/1

United States (n), U.S. (adj), 1/1

USSR (n), 1/1

Washington, D.C. [in text], 1/1

Xibaipo [China], 3/2

Yangtze River, 8/3

Yaroslavl [Russia], 3/2



Words and Phrases

a [not an] historical, 1/1

abstract expressionism, 6/4

ad hoc [no ital], 1/1

administrations: Truman administration, the administration, 1/1

adviser, 1/1

Agreement for the Defense of Greenland [1941], 3/3

Aircraft names: Separate letters and numbers with a hyphen when the numbers follow. No division when numbers precede letters: B-1 bomber, 747-400ER, E-3A, MiG-21, Su-27, Il-28, Tu-95

air-defense (adj), 4/3

air strike (n), 7/2

Allies, the (for WW I & II); also: the Allied bombing, 3/1

Allied Control Council, 4/2

al Qaeda, 8/2

American Israel Public Affairs Committee, 3/2

anti- compounds are generally hyphenated [Change to style requested by MK, 11/7/03], but antitrust, antiwar

Anschluss [ital], 7/4

Antiballistic Missile Treaty, 3/3

apparat, apparatchik [no ital], 3/2, 7/2

appendix I, 6/4

Arctic Circle;  but arctic region (etc.), 5/4

arms control (adj), 5/4 [strategic arms control negotiations]

arms race (adj, n), 1/1

arms reduction (adj); Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, 5/4

Assembleé Nationale [French National Assembly], 2/3

Azerbaijan/i, Azeris, 3/2

Baghdad Pact, 4/2

balance of power (n), balance-of-power (adj), 1/1

Belovezhskaya Pushcha [orForest] accords, 5/1

Berlin crisis, 8/2

Berlin Wall, 1/1

best-known, 3/2

Bezbozhnik (The Godless) [Soviet journal], 3/2

Bezbozhnik u stanka (The Godless at the Work-Bench) [Soviet journal], 3/2

bi- compounds are generally closed: bipolarity

Bizone, 5/3

Bolshevik, Bolshevization, 3/2

Bosnia and Hercegovina (Bosna i Hercegovina)

Brezhnev Doctrine, 5/4

Bricker Amendment of 1953, 3/2

bridge-building [always hyphenated per MK]

build-down, 4/4

Camp David accords, 8/1

capitalism, 4/1

case study (adj), 1/1

casus belli [no ital], 1/1

Catholic Church, 3/2

center left, 4/2

Central State Archive of Historical-Political Documents of St. Petersburg (formerly the Leningrad Party Archive), 3/2

Centre des Archives d’Outre Mer [in Aix-en-Provence, France], 3/3

centro-sinistra, 4/2

“Chekist” [quotes on first use]

Chelyabinsk-65 [now Mayak Chemical Combine], 3/3

Chemical Weapons Treaty, 3/2

Ch’ôndogyo, Ch’ônwudang [NK political parties], 3/1

civil-affairs (adj)

civil defense (adj)

civil-rights (adj), 4/4

co- compounds are generally closed: coexistence, but co-opt

Cold War (n, adj), 1/1

Cominform, 3/2

Comintern [Communist International], 3/3

Command-and-control (adj), 7/3

commander-in-chief (n), 1/1

Communism, Communization, 1/1

Communist era, 1/1

Congress (n), congressional (adj.)

Conservative (when referring to British political party)

constitution [lc, except U.S.]

Conventional Arms Transfer Talks (CAT Talks), 8/2

counter- compounds are generally closed: counterinsurgency, countermeasures, counterterrorism

coup de grâce [no ital], 2/3

coup d’état [no ital], 1/1

coup de théâtre [no ital], 3/2

criteria (plural)

Cuban missile crisis, 1/1

Cultural Revolution [China], 3/3

“Daniloff affair” [quotes on first use], 7/2

Dashnak party [Armenian nationalist party], 3/2

data (plural), 1/1

de facto [no ital], 4/4

delink, 7/2

demokratizatsiya [ital], 5/4

Department of State, State Department, the department, 1/1

détente, 2/3

deutsche mark(s), 3/1

Dimokratikos Stratos [journal of the DSE], 3/3

East, the, 1/1

East-Central Europe, East-Central European, 1/1

Eastern bloc (n), 1/1; East-bloc (adj), 1/1

Eastern Europe, East European, 1/1

Editor-in-chief, 1/1

Editorial Board [of JCWS], 1/1

Eestimaa Rahvarinne [Estonian freedom movmt.], 5/4

Efremov Scientific Research Institute of Electrophysical Apparatus [near Leningrad], 3/3

“empty chair” crisis, 2/3

Elysée Treaty (1963), 6/1

en bloc [no ital], 3/3

en masse [no ital], 1/1

en passant [no ital], 1/1

en route (adj), 8/2

ethno- compounds are generally closed: ethnofederalism, ethnonationalism, ethnographic

Eurocommunist, 4/3

Euromissile crisis [1983–1984], 3/3

ExComm (Executive Committee – abbreviated this way only when referring to the ad-hoc body formed by President Kennedy during the Cuban missile crisis)

ex post [no ital], 2/3

eye to eye (adv), 1/1

fait accompli [no ital], 1/1

Far East, Middle East, Near East, 1/1

fascist (n, adj); BUT the Fascists [referring to political party in Europe]

fighter-interceptor (n), 8/2

first-hand (adj), firsthand (adv.)

Five, the, 6/4

Five-Year Plan, 1/1

force de frappe, 4/1

foreign policy (adj), 1/1

Fouchet Plan, 2/3

“Four Marshals’ Study Group” [in quotes on first use], 8/4

Four Powers, 1/1

Frelinghuysen-Zavala treaty, 3/2

game-theoretical model, 1/1

Gang of Four, 8/4

glasnost [no ital]

gift giving [n, no hyphen], 7/2

Gilpatric Committee on Nuclear Proliferation, 6/1

Good Neighbor policy, 8/2

Government agencies and departments: capitalize titles: Chinese Foreign Ministry

grandeur [ital when French term called for], 2/3

Great Helmsman [nickname for Mao Zedong]. 6/1

Great Leap Forward, 6/1

great-power (adj), great powers (n), 3/2

Group of Seven, 7/1

gulag, 9/1

Gulf of Tonkin incident, 8/2

half- compounds: half century (n), 1/1

Hallstein Commission, 6/4

Hapsburg, 4/1

hardline, hardliner [note: no longer hyphenated; change in style per MK, 11/10/03], 3/2

herculean [lc]

High Command [e.g., Soviet High Command], 8/2

high-level, 3/2

human-rights (adj), 5/4

Holy Synod [of Russian Orthodox Church], 3/2

Il-28 [Soviet-made bomber]

Imperial [cap when referring to form of government]

Informburo, 3/2

INF Treaty, 7/2

Innenpolitik, 6/1

institutchiki, 3/1

intelligentsiya, 3/1

inter- compounds are generally closed: interimperialist, interethnic

Interdvizhenie “Unitatea-Edinstvo”, Internationalist Movement for Unity (Moldova), 5/4

interest group (adj), 1/1

intermediate-range AND Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

international relations (adj), 1/1

intra- compounds are generally closed: intrabloc

Iran-contra scandal, 3/2

“Iron Curtain” speech [Churchill, 1946], 7/1

Italian Advisory Council, 3/2

Joint Chiefs of Staff, 3/3

Journal of Cold War Studies, the journal, 1/1

juche [N. Korean concept meaning “self-reliance”], 6/3

K-5 [preceded Stasi], 6/2

“kitchen debate”, 4/1

Korean War, 1/1

korenizatsiya, 5/4

Kremlin, the, 1/1

Krunk [Armenian pressure group], 3/2

kulak [no ital], 3/2

Kuomintang (KMT), later Guomindang, 3/2

Labour (stet British spelling and cap when referring to British political party)

Lao Dong [Vietnamese Communist Party], 3/3

Latvijas Tautas Fronte [Latvian popular front], 5/4

League of the Militant Godless, 3/2

Legion d’Honneur, 3/1

Lend-Lease Act, 3/2

Lietuvos laisv;e.s lyga [Lithuanian Freedom League], 6/4

Limited Test Ban Treaty, 6/1

“Long Telegram” [Kennan, 1946], 7/1

long-time, long-standing, long-awaited

mainland China, 9/1

-maker compounds [consult MK]: decision-maker; policymaker [style changed per MK, 11/7/03]

-making compounds [consult MK]: decision-making (n, adj); foreign policymaking (adj; note en dash); peacemaking (n, adj), policymaking (n, adj) [style changed per MK, 11/7/03], warmaking (n, adj)

Manhattan Project, 3/3

Mannerheim Line, 6/1

Marshall Plan, 3/2

Mayak Chemical Combine [formerly Chelyabinsk-65], 3/3

member-state, 6/4

memoranda, 1/1

“McMahon Line,” 8/3

Miatsum (Unification) movement [Armenia], 3/2


MiG-21 [etc.], 8/1

military forces: capitalize full names or when referring to U.S. forces—U.S. Army, In the United States, the Army . . ., 1/1 [style changed per MK, 11/7/03]

Ministry of Defence (UK) [note spelling of Defence], 6/2

Minjudang (NK Democratic Party), 3/1

missile-defense (adj), 4/3

Molotov-von Ribbentrop Pact, 3/2

mono- compounds are generally closed: monodimensional, monomaniacal, monolithic

Morgenthau Plan, 1/1

Moscow Conference [October 1943], 3/2

Most Favored Nation [adj], 6/1

multi- compounds are generally closed: multiarchival, multicausal, multiparty, multivariate, multilingual

naive, 1/1

Narkomindel (Soviet People’s Commissariat on Foreign Affairs), 3/2

National Archives and Records Administration [NARA, U.S. archival agency]

The National Archives of the United Kingdom (NAUK or TNA)

National Intelligence Estimate, 8/2

national-security (ad), 4/4

National Security Archive, 1/1

nation building, 7/4

neo- compounds are generally closed: neoliberalism, neorealism

Neo-Atlanticism, Neo-Atlanticist, 4/3

New Look doctrine, 6/3

New Course, 1/1

new thinking [n], new-thinking [adj], 7/2

nomenklatura, 3/2

non- compounds are generally hyphenated [style changed per MK, 11/7/03], non-believer, non-Communist, non-nuclear but noncommittal nonentity, nonplussed, nonproliferation

Northern Tier, 4/3

Novocherkassk protest, 3/1

novoe myshlenie [new thinking], 4/1

nuclear disarmament [adj], 8/2

nuclear test ban [adj], 6/3

nuclear war-fighting, 4/2

nuclear weapons [adj]

oblast [but Nakorno-Karabakh Autonomous Oblast], 3/2

Occupying Powers [WWII], 7/4

on-line (adv and adj), 1/1

-oriented compounds are hyphenated before noun, open after: problem-oriented focus, focus was problem oriented

Ostpolitik, 3/3

Panchsheel (Five Principles), 8/3

Paris Conference [1946], 3/2

Party [cap. following political group: Communist Party, Liberal Party, etc.; but “Soviet party officials,” etc.]

Partito d’Azione, 3/2

Patriarch Pimen, etc. [cap. for head of Russian Orthodox Church], 3/2

peacemaking (n, adj), 3/2

perestroika [no ital], 1/1

Pet;o”fi Circle, 8/4

Peyrefitte Memorandum, 2/3

“ping-pong diplomacy” [lc, quotes on first use], 8/4

“pluricontinentalism” [quotes on first use], 8/4

Point Four program, 8/4

policymaker, policymaking

Politburo (Soviet), 1/1; Politbüro (SED), 1/1

political parties: cap Party—Communist Party, Labour Party, Tudeh Party

political science (adj), 1/1

political-warfare (adj), 4/4

politico-military, 4/2

post- compounds are generally closed: postmodernist, postwar, but post-revisionism, post-Stalin, post–Cold War [en dash] post–World War II [end dash]

Potemkinism, Potemkin strategy, 1/1

Potsdam Conference, 3/2

power-hungry, 3/1

power projection capability, 8/2

Prague Spring [1968], 3/3

pre- compounds are generally closed: predetermine, but pre–World War II [en dash]

prima facie [no ital], 2/3

Presidium [of the USSR Council of Ministers or CPSU Presidium], 1/1

primary source [adj], 6/3

pro- compounds (in the sense of “supporting”) are hyphenated: pro-nationalization, pro-Western [per MK, 11/24/03, all pro- compounds should be hyphenated]

public-policy (adj)

public relations (adj)

putsch/ist [no ital], 3/1

Quai d’Orsay, 2/3

quasi-colonial, 4/2

rational-choice approach, 2/3; but rational choice theory, 7/2

re- compounds are generally closed: rearm, reassessment, reevaluation; but re-legalize, re-send, re-create

Reagan Doctrine, 5/4

Realpolitik [no ital], 1/1

Reciprocal Trade Agreements Act of 1934, 3/2

Rectification Campaign [China, 1942–1944], 3/2

Red Army, 1/1


Rizospastis [Greek Communist newspaper], 3/3

Rowman & Littlefield [not Rowan]

Rukh (shortened form of Narodnyi Rukh Ukrainy za perebudovu, or Popular Movement of Ukraine for Perestroika), 5/4

Russian Orthodox Church, 3/2

Russian State Archive of Social-Political History (Rossiiskii Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Sotsialno-Politicheskoi Istorii, formerly the Central Party Archive of the Institute for Marxism-Leninism), 3/2

Russophile [uc], 5/4

S;a,j;u-dis (Lithuanian Movement for Reconstruction), 5/4

SALT II treaty, 8/2

samizdat [no ital], 5/4

“satellization,” 1/1*

seasons are not capped [except in footnotes to identify issue], 1/1

second-in-command, 8/1

Second World War, 1/1; also World War II

secret-service (adj), 8/2

Secret Speech [Khruschev speech denouncing Stalin, 1956], 6/4

Security Council Resolution 242 [etc.], Resolution 242

Sejm [Polish legislature], 3/2

semi- compounds are generally hyphenated: semi-regulated [change in style per MK, 11/10/03]

“Seventeen-Point Agreement” [quotes on first use], official title: Agreement of the Central People’s Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet [23 May 1951], 8/3

SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers, Europe)

shoot-down (n), 4/4

side by side (adv), 1/1

Simla convention, 8/3

sine qua non [no ital], 2/3

Sino-Indian (adj)

Sino-Soviet (adj), 3/2

Six-Day Mideast War, 3/3

Six, the

slogans are c/lc, enclosed in quote marks

social-contract (adj), 5/4

sociopolitical, 4/1

Soldatensender Calais, 2/3

Solidarity, Solidarno;sa;ca, 5/4

Sovietologist, 1/1

Sovinformburo, 4/4

Special National Intelligence Estimate, SNIE [note caps], 6/3

speeches—informal names: “Carter Doctrine” speech, 1/1

spetsoperatsiya [special operation], 4/1

State Archive of the Russian Federation (Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Rossiiskoi Federatsii, formerly the Central State Archive of the October Revolution and Socialist Construction), 3/2

strategic choice theory, 3/2

sub- compounds are generally closed: subfield

subbotniki, 1/1

submarine classes (e.g., Alfa, Hotel, Ohio): Alfa-class submarines 8/2

sui generis [no ital], 1/1

superpower, 1/1; “superpowerdom,” 1/1*

Supreme People’s Assembly (NK), 3/1

table 1

takeover, 3/1

Third World (n, adj), 1/1

titles: Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov, Foreign Minister Molotov, 1/1; President Dwight D. Eisenhower, the president, 1/1; chief of staff. Exceptions: General Secretary, First Secretary, Secretary (of the Central Committee).

togliattismo, 6/2

TonkinGulf Resolution [1964], 3/2

Tonton Macoutes (Haitian Secret Police), 3/1

top secret (adj), 1/1 [per Webster’s]

Treaty of Ghent, 3/2

Trizone, 7/1

Tsarist (cap when referring to form of government)




uskorenie [acceleration], 7/2

Varkiza Agreement [1945], 3/3


vis-à-vis [no ital], 1/1

Voluntaires de la Sécurité Nationale (Haitian militia), 3/1

Warsaw Pact, 1/1

Washington, DC

weapons-grade [adj], 7/2

website, 2/3

Weltpolitik, 2/3

West, the, 1/1

Western [pertaining to the Western world], 1/1; but western in the sense of direction and genre, 1/1

Western Europe, West European, 1/1

Westerner, 1/1

Winter War, 1/1

worldview, 3/2

world-system theory, 4/4

World War II, 1/1; also Second World War

 “zero-sumism,” 1/1*


*Quotes for first appearance only in each article.

Acronyms, Abbreviations, & Initials

  • Spell out term at first mention in article text, with acronym following in parens. OK to use acronym alone from then on.
  • No need to spell out common acronyms.
  • Spell out state and country names in text; use abbreviations in “tight matter”—that is, tables, figures, and footnotes.
  • Common abbreviations (“dept.”) and scholarly abbreviations (“e.g.,” “i.e.”) are OK in parens and tight matter; do not use in text.
  • Space between initials in personal names. [changed 2/3]



  • Number 1: Winter [January]
  • Number 2: Spring [April]
  • Number 3: Summer [July]
  • Number 4: Fall [September]


Italics & Quote Marks

  • Italics are OK for emphasis (sparingly); book, journal, movie titles; TV and radio series titles; names of ships and spacecraft; words as words; uncommon foreign terms (not found in MW10).
  • Italicize punctuation following word or passage in italics. Italicize braces around fully italic text.
  • Quote marks are used for nonstandard words or ironical usage (sparingly); article titles; titles of individual TV and radio shows in a series.



  • No right justification
  • Left justify section headings (do not center)
  • Block quotes should double the indent of paragraphs (e.g., if indent is 0.25”, block quotes indent 0.5”) on both left and right side—full justification


Language and Grammar

  • Proofing language must be set to U.S. English in both body text and notes
  • British/U.K./Canadian spellings should be changed to U.S. English spellings (e.g., “colour” to “color,” etc.)



  • Do not offset as a block quote (with numbers, letters, etc.) unless doing so clarifies matters. [per MK, 11/7/03]



  • Spell out one to twenty (but 12-year-old, 15-megaton, etc.), plus any of these with hundred, thousand, million, etc., except in long list (but 1,000-word document). Always spell out million.
  • Spell out all numbers beginning a sentence (and if  a sentence starts with a year, render it as “The year 1956 witnessed a great deal . . .”)
  • Spell out all ordinal numbers through “hundredth.”
  • Spell out and hyphenate common fractions in text: three-quarters.
  • Examples: 1,744 [note comma], ten thousand, 2 million, 5 billion
  • Centuries: nineteenth century (n), mid-nineteenth century (n), nineteenth-century (adj)
  • Dates: 5 March 1946, the 5th, March 1947, the 1920s, the mid-1940s, 1939–1940 [en dash], “from 1987 to 1991” OR “from 1987 through 1991” NOT “from 1987–1991” and NOT “between 1987 and 1991”
  • Percentages: 4.7 percent, 6.5 to 10.1 percent, 10-percent (adj)
  • Time: 7 a.m. [small caps]



  • Antecedents must always come before pronouns (e.g., “When Kennedy was here, he met with the ambassador” NOT “When he was here, Kennedy met with the ambassador”); exceptions can occur for some possessives (e.g., “For his next trick, the magician pulled out a deck of cards”).


  • Enclose closing commas in quotations within quotation marks (e.g., “lorem ipsum,” rather than “lorem ipsum”,)
  • Use series comma.
  • Comma before conjunction only when conjunction separates two independent clauses.
  • Em and en dashes set tight.
  • Capitalize a complete sentence following a colon.
  • Comma before Jr. (Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr.)
  • Set ital. or bold following word or passage in italics or bold



  • Quotations of fewer than 40 words are run into text.
  • Ellipsis points are spaced. Use three dots for deletion within a sentence (space before and after each dot); four for deletion between complete sentences (space before and after last three dots). No ellipsis at beginning or end of quote.
  • In book reviews, page numbers for quotations go at end of sentence, outside quote marks, and before period: “Blah blah” (p. 10). With extracts, page numbers follow period: Blah blah. (p. 10)
  • Italics: “Blah blah blah [emphasis added] or [emphasis in original].”
  • Enclose closing commas in quotations within quotation marks (e.g., “lorem ipsum,” rather than “lorem ipsum”,)


Running Feet & Heads

  • First page: Journal of Cold War Studies [line break] Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter 1999, pp. 00–00 [line break] © 1999 by the President and Fellows of Harvard College and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology
  • Verso: Last name(s)
  • Recto: Article Title [abbreviated as needed, no subtitle]


Section Headings

  • Left-justified, bold text, no italics
  • Capitalize first letter of each word



  • Spelling per Webster’s Tenth, unless noted otherwise.
  • Prefixes set tight, unless noted otherwise.
  • Possessives of singular nouns formed with apostrophe + s, unless noted otherwise: Dulles’s, Gaddis’s Jones’s; only exceptions: for convenience’ sake, for appearance’ sake



  • Translations of book titles in foot/endnotes are unnecessary and not recommended (can be removed during editing); translations in body text are acceptable and should be italicized (should be used if abbreviation of translation is used throughout document)



  • Footnote numbers (superscripts) should be placed at the end of the sentence or clause. They follow all punctuation except a dash, go outside parentheses, and belong at the end of extracts.
  • If there is more than one source in a single note, separate with semicolons and use “and” before last reference.
  • Use “et al.” when there are more than three authors (e.g., “Smith et al.”).
  • The state or country should be added in the following instances: after “Cambridge,” “Princeton,” and “Stanford.” And the state or country should be added after any city that is not well known.
    Also: Manchester, New Brunswick, Garden Falls, Graz. Abbreviations are not required for New Haven, Boston, Chapel Hill, Berkeley, New Orleans, Dallas, Houston, Amherst, South Bend, and Seattle, but are needed for Wilmington, DE; Lawrence, KS; Stanford, CA; Princeton, NJ; Oxford, MS (to distinguish it from Oxford, UK); Cambridge, MA (to distinguish it from Cambridge, UK); Ithaca, NY (to distinguish it from Ithaca, Greece, which is the site of three university publishers); Columbia, SC; Bloomington, IN (to distinguish it from the city with the same name in Illinois, which is the site of another major publishing house); Miami, FL (to distinguish it from Miami, OH, which is the site of another university publishing house of the same name, compounding the potential for confusion); and the special cases of St. Louis and Kansas City, which exist in close proximity to namesakes in neighboring states.
  • Dates appear with month in full in the day-month-year format: 1 January 1998; seasons are capped.
  • Use all digits with inclusive page numbers.
  • Use “n.d.” (for no date with a source)—not “nd”
  • Use “n.pub.” for “no publisher; use “n.p.” for “no place” [of publication]
    • Use “ch.” and “chs.” for “chapter” and “chapters.”
    • Use “Doc.” and “Docs.” for “Document” and “Documents.”
  • Use “Ibid.” (with a period, no ital.) only if preceding note has only one source.

•      For subsequent mention, use short cites. Include a short title. Do not use “op cit.”

  • Use “U.S. Government Printing Office” (can be abbreviated to USGPO after first mention).
  • Newspaper titles that begin with "The" are given in full (The New York Times, The Washington Post, The Wall Street Journal, The Boston Globe), whereas newspaper titles that don't begin with "The" obviously don't have it (e.g., Los Angeles Times, San Francisco Chronicle, Financial Times). [Note: this is contra Chicago.]
  • Use Washington, DC not Washington to avoid confusion with the state.
  • Generally use up style: 4th Ed., Vol. 2, No. 12, Box 10, Folder 14, Op. 5, Doc. 5A. Exceptions: ch. 3, p. 2, pt. 5.



  • John Lewis Gaddis, Strategies of Containment: A Critical Appraisal of Postwar American National Security Policy (Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 1982), p. 354.
  • Gaddis, Strategies of Containment, p. 357.


Book—Two or Three Authors

  • Vladislav Zubok and Constantine Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin’s Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), pp. 159–164


Book—More Than Three Authors

  • Stavro Skendi et al., Albania (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1956), pp. 85–86.



  • Richard Rosecrance and Arthur Stein, eds., The Domestic Bases of Grand Strategy (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1993), p. 5.
  • Enver Hoxha, The Artful Albanian: The Memoirs of Enver Hoxha, ed. by Jon Halliday (London: Chatto and Windus, 1986), pp. 147–151.
  • Nikita Khrushchev, Memoirs of Nikita Khrushchev, ed. by Sergei Khrushchev, trans. by George Shriver (University Park, PA:  PennsylvaniaStateUniversity Press, 2006).
  • Rosecrance and Stein, eds., The Domestic Bases of Grand Strategy, p. 5.



  • Mario Toscano, Pagine di storia diplomatica contemporanea, Vol. 2 (Milano: Giuffre, 1963), pp. 289–358.
  • Owen Chadwick, The Penguin History of the Church, Vol. 7, The Christian Church in the Cold War (London: Penguin, 1993), p. 95


Book—Part of Series

  • Robert K. Yin, Case Study Research: Design and Methods, Vol. 5 of Applied Social Research Methods Series (Newbury Park: Sage Publications, 1989).


Contribution to Book

  • Richard Ned Lebow, “The Long Peace, the End of the Cold War, and the Failure of Realism,” in Richard Ned Lebow and Thomas Risse-Kappen, eds., International Relations Theory and the End of the Cold War (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), pp. 143–163.
  • Cabinet Room transcript, 16 October 1962, 6:30 p.m., in May and Zelikow, eds., Kennedy Tapes, pp. 82–83.
  • Harry Eckstein, “Case Study and Theory in Political Science,” in Fred I. Greenstein and Nelson Polsby, eds., Handbook of Political Science, Vol. 7 of Strategies of Inquiry (Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1975), pp. 79–137.


Document in Book with Identified Editor, subsequent mention

  • “Prilozhenie k Resheniyu Politburo TsK VKP (b),” 28 January 1942, in Kynin and Laufer, eds., SSSR i Germanskii vopros, Vol. 1, Doc. 18.


Document in Book without Identified Editor, subsequent mention

  • “Lichnoe i Sekretnoe Poslanie ot Prem’era I. V. Stalina Prem’er-Ministru g-nu U. Cherchillyu,” 9 August 1943, in Perepiska, Vol. 1, Doc. 170,.



  • Bulgariya v’v Varshavskiya Dogovor (Bulgaria in the Warsaw Pact), CD-ROM (Sofia: Izdatelska Kushcha BM, 2000).


Journal Article

  • Fareed Zakaria, “Realism and Domestic Politics: A Review Essay,” International Security, Vol. 17, No. 1 (Summer 1992), pp. 103–115.
  • Zakaria, “Realism and Domestic Politics,” p. 105.
  • Michael Desch, “Progress or Degeneration? The Return to Culture in National Security Studies,” International Security, forthcoming.


Newspaper Article

  • S. Kovalev, “I.V. Stalin o rechi U. Cherchillya: Otvet korrespondentu ‘Pravdy,’” Pravda (Moscow), 14 March 1946, p. 1.


Television Program Episode—on Videotape or DVD

  • “A Taste of Armageddon,” Star Trek, videotape, directed by Joseph Pevney (1967; Hollywood, CA: Paramount Studios, 1990).
  • “A Taste of Armageddon.”


Working or Occasional Papers

  • Hope Harrison, “Ulbricht and the Concrete ‘Rose’: New Archival Evidence on the Dynamics of Soviet-East German Relations and the Berlin Crisis, 1958–1961,” CWIHP Working Paper No. 5, Cold War International History Project, Washington, DC, May 1993.


Thesis or Dissertation

  • James D. Fearon, “Threats to Use Force: Costly Signals and Bargaining in International Crises,” Ph.D. Diss., University of California, Berkeley, 1992, ch. 3.


Other Unpublished Papers

  • Phillip E. Tetlock, “Theory-Driven Reasoning about Possible Pasts and Probable Futures in World Politics: Are We Prisoners of Our Preconceptions?” OhioStateUniversity, n.d.
  • Svante Cornell, “Autonomy in the South Caucasus: A Catalyst of Conflict?” (paper presented at the fifth annual convention of the Association for the Study of Nationalities, New York, NY, April 2000).
  • Daniel L. Watson, “‘A Europe Worthy of Mindszenty’: Catholic ‘Martyrs and Heroes’ in American and West European Cold War Culture” (paper presented at the “Cold War Culture: Film, Fact, and Fiction” conference, IndianaUniversity, Bloomington, IN, 18–21 February 1999), pp. 3–4


Interview or Personal Communication

  • Andrei Aleksandrov-Agentov, interview, Moscow, 11 October 1992.
  • Robert Hultslander to Piero Gleijeses, Facsimile, 22 December 1998, p. 3, in the author’s possession.


Published Document

  • National Security Council (NSC) Staff Study, Annex to NSC 5608, “U.S. Policy Toward the Satellites in Eastern Europe,” 6 July 1956, in U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1955–1957, Vol. XXV, p. 199 (hereinafter referred to as FRUS, with appropriate year and volume numbers).
  • “Attachment from Rusk to Maxwell Taylor and McGeorge Bundy and Robert Bell,” 29 October 1961, in FRUS, 1961–1963, Vol. VIII, p. 191.


Legislative Proceedings

  • Parliamentary Debates, 5th ser., Vol. 509 (1952), pp. 35–39.


Archival Material [Note: style updated to conform with CMS 15 (Jan. 06)—cd] The most important thing is consistency in the style of citation throughout the article, rather than a need to adhere rigidly to any particular format in every article.  As long as the same format is used throughout the article, the precise nature of the format can vary slightly from article to article

  • “Zapis’ besedy s ministrom inostrannykh del ChSR V. Shirokii ot 22 dekabrya 1952 g.,” Cable No. 1284 (Top Secret), from Soviet ambassador A. V. Bogomolov to Soviet foreign minister A. Ya. Vyshinskii, 26 December 1952, in Rossiiskii Tsentr Gosudarstvennyi Arkhiv Noveishei Istorii (RGANI), Fond (F.) 5, Opis’ (Op.) 22, Delo (D.) 988, Listy (Ll.) 7–9
  • “V Tsentral’nyi Komitet Kommunisticheskoi Partii Sovetskogo Soyuza” (Secret), from V. Ignat’ev to V.G. Grigor’yan, 19 January 1953, in RGANI, F. 5, Op. 22, D. 988, Ll. 47–55.
  • “Memorandum of Discussion at the 135th Meeting of the National Security Council, Washington,” 5 March 1953, in Dwight D. Eisenhower Library (DDEL) NSC Series, Ann Whitman File.
  • Dwight D. Eisenhower to Winston Churchill, 8 May 1953, p. 2, Box 16, International File, Ann Whitman File, DDE Library (or DDEL).
  • Jimmy Carter to Pope John Paul II (Draft), n.d., in Jimmy Carter Library (JCL), Zbigniew Brzezinski Collection (ZBC), Mtgs.— Box 32, SCC 261: 1/28/80 Folder,.
  • Report by the Joint Strategic Planning Survey Committee, 24 October 1950, in Records of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Part II, 1946–53 (RJCS), the Middle East, reel 1, frame 114, University Publications of America (UPA) microfilm, 1979.
  • 298th NSC Meeting, 27 September 1956, , in Declassified Documents Reference System (DDRS), 1980, Doc. 382C.
  • “Telephone call to Mr. Martin, Tuesday, October 16, 1962, 2:39 p.m.,” in Richard B. Russell Library for Political Research and Studies, University of Georgia, Dean Rusk Personal Papers, General Office Files, Rusk Telephone Log, October 1962 File.
  • Outgoing Message, EXTERNAL OTT to PERMISNY/WASH DC, No. XL-106, “Cuban Position on the Crisis” (Confidential), 25 October 1962, National Archives of Canada (NAC), Ottawa, RG 25, Vol. 4184, File 2444-40, pt. 10.
  • Risquet to Fidel Castro, 23 April 1976, pp. 2, 6, in Archives of the Central Committee of the Cuban Communist Party, Havana (hereinafter cited as ACC).
  • “Discussion with Delegates to the World Health Assembly—Peter G. Bourne, M.D., Geneva, Switzerland, May 1977: Angola,” in Jimmy Carter Library (JCL), Atlanta, Staff Offices: Special Assistant to President, Box 41.
  • “Meeting of Somali Ambassador Addou with President Carter,” Memorandum for the Record, 16 June 1977, in JCL, Brzezinski Collection, NSA, Horn, Staff Material, Box 1.
  • Memorandum by Paul Henze to Brzezinski, 1 March 1978, p. 1, Box 1, Horn, Staff Material, NSA, Brzezinski Collection, JCL.
  • “Re: U.S. Policy to El Salvador,” Memorandum by Zbigniew Brzezinski to Jimmy Carter, 29 January 1980, Meetings—SCC 274: 2/15/80 Folder, Box 32, ZBC, JCL.
  • “Response, Presidential Review Memorandum-36: Soviet—Cuban Presence in Africa,” 18 August 1978, p. 15, National Security Archive, WashingtonDC (hereinafter referred to as NSArchive).


  • Abbreviations:
    • Declassified Documents Reference System (DDRS)
    • Dwight D. Eisenhower Library (DDE Library or DDEL)
    • George C. Marshal Library (GCML)
    • Harry S. Truman Library (HSTL)
    • Jimmy Carter Library (JCL)
    • John F. Kennedy Library (JFKL)
    • Library of Congress (LC)
    • Lyndon Baines Johnson Library (LBJL)
    • National Archives and Records Administration [U.S.] (NARA)
    • National Security Archive (hereinafter referred to as NSArchive)
    • National Archives of Australia (NAA)
    • The National Archives of the United Kingdom (UKNA or TNA)


  • Material quoted in another source
    • Leeper to Foreign Office, 5 June 1945, 371/48271 R9722, Foreign Office Files (FO), Public Record Office, London (hereinafter PRO): quoted in John O. Iatrides, ed., Ambassador MacVeagh Reports: Greece, 1933–1947 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1980), pp. 680–681. [Note addition of “quoted,” 7/3/05 to conform w/CMS15 17.274]