Gruenbaum, Ben: The Senate Electoral Calendar and Minority Party Agenda Power

(PDF) I use a novel methodology and data set to assess how the Senate's asymmetric electoral cycle effects agenda-setting. 

Specifically I estimate the effect that being sponsored by an "in-cycle'' Senator has on the probability that an amendment will reach various legislative stages. This effect is identified with amendments that have been offered in identical form across multiple Congressional sessions. The results are surprising: Immediate electoral-vulnerability increases the probability of a positive agenda outcome for the minority party but not for the majority.  This  suggests that partisan influence in the Senate may not conform with prominent agenda-setting theories that were developed with the House of Representatives in mind.