Refuge/Shelter

2013
Nnawulezi NA, Sullivan CM. Oppression Within Safe Spaces: Exploring Racial Microaggressions Within Domestic Violence Shelters. The Journal of Black Psychology [Internet]. 2013;40 (6) :563-591. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://jbp.sagepub.com/content/40/6/563

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

Racial microaggressions are often unintentional and subtle forms of racism that manifest in interpersonal communications, behaviors, or environments. The purpose of this study was to explore the presence of racial microaggressions within domestic violence shelters and to understand how women respond to them. Using a phenomenological approach to data collection and analysis, 14 Black women from 3 different shelters were interviewed. Twelve women reported experiencing at least one racial microaggression, although few identified the experience as racist. Additional themes were also examined to understand why women did not identify their experiences of racial microaggressions as racist. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

2011
Sullivan CM. Evaluating domestic violence support service programs: Waste of time, necessary evil, or opportunity for growth?. Aggression and Violent Behavior [Internet]. 2011;16 (4) :354-360. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1359178911000607

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

More and more funders of non-profit organizations are mandating that grantees engage in outcome evaluation. Given that this mandate is rarely accompanied by additional funding to devote to such efforts, as well as the limited skills many staff have in conducting outcome evaluation, this has been a significant hardship for human service programs. Domestic violence victim service programs have additional barriers to evaluating service effectiveness, including: (1) each survivor1 comes to the program with different needs and life circumstances; (2) there is debate about which ‘outcomes’ are appropriate for these programs to accomplish; (3) many service clients are anonymous or engage in very short-term services; and (4) surveying survivors can compromise their safety or comfort. Some programs, therefore, resist evaluating their services (which can compromise their funding) while others engage in evaluations that can compromise their integrity or values. Others, however, see outcome evaluation as an opportunity for growth and improvement. Evidence is provided that, if done appropriately and sensitively, outcome evaluation can be incorporated into ongoing staff activities, can provide evidence for program effectiveness, and can improve services for survivors of intimate partner abuse.

2008
Sullivan CM, Baptista I, O'halloran S, Okroj L, Morton S, Stewart CS. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Women's Refuges: A Multi‐Country Approach to Model Development. International Journal of Comparative and Applied Criminal Justice [Internet]. 2008;32 (2) :291-308. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01924036.2008.9678790

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

There is increasing pressure on domestic violence victim service programs worldwide to demonstrate the impact of their work on those using their services. Many workers within such programs are also interested in understanding more about what is and is not working well for service users. The current project was a multi‐country collaboration to design an outcome evaluation model that would be useful to domestic violence programs, easy and inexpensive to implement, and that would reflect the diverse experiences, needs, and concerns of women experiencing domestic abuse. Focusing at this initial stage on evaluating refuges, the project partners incorporated empowerment evaluation methods and feminist principles to create the model. This article presents the five phases of model development and provides preliminary findings from a pilot evaluation to demonstrate its utility. Next steps and recommendations are then discussed.

1995
Campbell R, Sullivan CM, Davidson WS. Women Who Use Domestic Violence Shelters:Changes in Depression Over Time. Psychology of Women Quarterly [Internet]. 1995;19 (2) :237-255. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://pwq.sagepub.com/content/19/2/237

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

This study examined the levels of depression reported by women who had used a domestic violence shelter. Depressive symptoms were assessed three times: immediately after shelter exit, 10 weeks thereafter, and 6 months later. Whereas 83% of the women reported at least mild depression on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) scale upon shelter exit, only 58% were depressed 10 weeks later. This did not change at the 6-month follow-up. An ecological, longitudinal model was evaluated to predict battered women's depression 8 1/2 months postshelter exit. Results of hierarchical regression analyses suggested that, after controlling for previous levels of depression, the women's feelings of powerlessness, experience of abuse, and decreased social support contributed to their depression symptoms. The women's scores on these three variables (feelings of powerlessness, abuse, and social support) at 10 weeks postshelter exit and at 6-month follow-up predicted depression at 6 months. Thus, there were both predictive and concurrent effects for these constructs. Implications for clinical and community interventions are discussed.

1992
Sullivan CM, Basta J, Tan C, Davidson WS. After the crisis: a needs assessment of women leaving a domestic violence shelter. Violence and Victims [Internet]. 1992;7 (3) :267-275. Publisher's VersionAbstract

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1294240

*The full article is available through this link. This article may be available free of charge to those with university credentials.

The current study presents the results of a needs assessment of 141 women exiting an emergency shelter for women with abusive partners. Extensive in-person interviews were conducted. Results indicate that battered women need numerous community resources upon their shelter exit, including legal assistance, employment, and housing. Race, age, and whether a woman was returning to her assailant influenced which resources she reported needing at shelter exit. Most of the women had experienced severe abuse and injuries, and required physical protection. Implications of these findings as they relate to program development and integration of social services are discussed.